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Postmodernism
Postmodernism
Postmodernism
is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.[1][2][3] The term has also more generally been applied to the historical era following modernity, and the tendencies of this era.[4] While encompassing a disparate variety of approaches, postmodernism is typically defined by an attitude of skepticism, irony, or rejection toward the meta-narratives and ideologies of modernism, and often calls into question various assumptions of Enlightenment
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Value System
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions. It may be described as treating actions as abstract objects, putting value to them. It deals with right conduct and living a good life, in the sense that a highly, or at least relatively high valuable action may be regarded as ethically "good" (adjective sense), and that an action of low value, or relatively low in value, may be regarded as "bad".[citation needed] What makes an action valuable may in turn depend on the ethic values of the objects it increases, decreases or alters. An object with "ethic value" may be termed an "ethic or philosophic good" (noun sense). Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of actions or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be
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Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Irony
Irony
Irony
(from Ancient Greek εἰρωνεία eirōneía, meaning 'dissimulation, feigned ignorance'[1]), in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case. Irony
Irony
can be categorized into different types, including: verbal irony, dramatic irony, and situational irony. Verbal, dramatic, and situational irony are often used for emphasis in the assertion of a truth
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The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. '"the Century of Lights"'; and in German: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment")[2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".[3] The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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Universalism
Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.[citation needed] A community that calls itself universalist may emphasize the universal principles of most religions and accept other religions in an inclusive manner, believing in a universal reconciliation between humanity and the divine.[citation needed] For example, some forms of Abrahamic religions
Abraham

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Reason
Reason
Reason
is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.[1] It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans.[2] Reason, or an aspect of it, is sometimes referred to as rationality. Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. The philosophical field of logic studies ways in which humans reason formally through argument.[3] Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning
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Moral Universalism
Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals",[1] regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.[2] Moral universalism is opposed to moral nihilism and moral relativism
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The Arts
The arts
The arts
refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures. Major constituents of the arts include literature – including poetry, prose and drama, performing arts – among them music, dance, and theatre; and visual arts – including drawing, painting, photography, ceramics, sculpting, and architecture – the art of designing and constructing buildings. Some art forms combine a visual element with performance (e.g. cinematography) or artwork with the written word (e.g. comics)
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Contingency (philosophy)
In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions). A contingent proposition is neither necessarily true nor necessarily false. Propositions that are contingent may be so because they contain logical connectives which, along with the truth value of any of its atomic parts, determine the truth value of the proposition
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Social Conditioning
Social conditioning
Social conditioning
is the sociological process of training individuals in a society to respond in a manner generally approved by the society in general and peer groups within society. The concept is stronger than that of socialization, which is the process of inheriting norms, customs and ideologies. Manifestations of social conditioning are vast, but they are generally categorized as social patterns and social structures including nationalism, education, employment, entertainment, popular culture, religion, spirituality and family life. The social structure in which an individual finds him or herself influences and can determine their social actions and responses. Social conditioning
Social conditioning
represents the environment and personal experience in the nature and nurture debate. Society in general and peer groups within society set the norms which shape the behavior of actors within the social system
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Postmodern Christianity
Postmodern theology -- also known as the continental philosophy of religion and postmodern Christianity -- is a philosophical and theological movement that interprets theology in light of post-Heideggerian continental philosophy, including phenomenology, post-structuralism, and deconstruction.[1]Contents1 History1.1 Radical Orthodoxy 1.2 Weak Theology2 Leading thinkers 3 See also 4 Notes 5 Further readingHistory[edit] Postmodern theology emerged in the 1980s and 1990s when a handful of philosophers who took philosopher Martin Heidegger
Martin Heidegger
as a common point of departure began publishing influential books on theology.[2] Some of the more notable works of the era include Jean-Luc Marion's 1982 book God Without Being,[3] Mark C. Taylor's 1984 book Erring,[4] Charles Winquist's 1994 book Desiring Theology,[5] John D
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Truth
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Time
Time
Saving Truth
Truth
from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737Truth, holding a mirror and a serpent (1896). Olin Levi Warner, Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C. Truth
Truth
is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.[1] Truth
Truth
may also often be used in modern contexts to refer to an idea of "truth to self," or authenticity. Truth
Truth
is usually held to be opposite to falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy, art, and religion
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Objective Reality
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Generally, objectivity means the state or quality of being true even outside a subject's individual biases, interpretations, feelings, and imaginings. A proposition is generally considered objectively true (to have objective truth) when its truth conditions are met without biases caused by feelings, ideas, opinions, etc., of a sentient subject. A second, broader meaning of the term refers to the ability in any context to judge fairly, without partiality or external influence. This second meaning of objectivity is sometimes used synonymously with neutrality.Contents1 Objectivity of knowledge 2 Objectivity in ethics2.1 Ethical subjectivism 2.2 Ethical objectivism3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksObjectivity of knowledge[edit]This section possibly contains original research
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Knowledge
Knowledge
Knowledge
is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge
Knowledge
can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject
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