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Postcolonialism
Postcolonialism
Postcolonialism
or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands. The name postcolonialism is modelled on postmodernism, with which it shares certain concepts and methods, and may be thought of as a reaction to or departure from colonialism in the same way postmodernism is a reaction to modernism. The ambiguous term colonialism may refer either to a system of government or to an ideology or world view underlying that system — in general postcolonialism represents an ideological response to colonialist thought, rather than simply describing a system that comes after colonialism
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William-Adolphe Bouguereau
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
(French pronunciation: ​[wijam.adɔlf buɡ(ə)ʁo]; 30 November 1825 – 19 August 1905) was a French academic painter
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Arabs
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Ernest Renan
Joseph Ernest Renan
Ernest Renan
(French: [ʁənɑ̃]; 28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892[2]) was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations (philology), philosopher, historian, and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany. He is best known for his influential historical works on early Christianity, and his political theories, especially concerning nationalism and national identity
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Cultural Identity
Cultural identity
Cultural identity
is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. In this way, cultural identity is both characteristic of the individual but also of the culturally identical group of members sharing the same cultural identity.[1] Cultural Identity helps us understand the relationships around us to determine who we are as individuals in our community. Our cultural identity is also shaped by the people within our culture and our surroundings to better understand our world
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Racialism (racial Categorization)
Racialism
Racialism
is the belief that the human species is naturally divided into races, that are ostensibly distinct biological categories. Most dictionaries define the term racialism as synonymous with racism.[1]Contents1 Definitions and differences 2 Identity politics 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingDefinitions and differences[edit]W. E. B. Du Bois, 1918In 1903, W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois
said that racialism is the philosophical position that races existed, and that collective differences existed among such categories, the races.[citation needed] He further stated that racism required advancing the argument that one race is superior to other races of human beings
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Scramble For Africa
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonisation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. It is also called the Partition of Africa
Africa
and by some the Conquest of Africa
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Civilizing Mission
The mission civilisatrice (in English "civilizing mission") was a rationale for intervention or colonization, purporting to contribute to the spread of civilization, and used mostly in relation to the Westernization
Westernization
of indigenous peoples in the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. It was notably the underlying principle of French[citation needed] and Portuguese[citation needed] colonial rule in the late 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th and early and mid 20th centuries. It was influential in the French colonies of Algeria, French West Africa, and Indochina, and in the Portuguese colonies of Angola, Guinea, Mozambique, and Timor
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Identity Politics
Identity politics
Identity politics
refers to political positions based on the interests and perspectives of social groups with which people identify. Identity politics includes the ways in which people's politics are shaped by aspects of their identity through loosely correlated social organizations. Examples include social organizations based on age, religion, social class or caste, culture, dialect, disability, education, ethnicity, language, nationality, sex, gender identity, generation, occupation, profession, race, political party affiliation, sexual orientation, settlement, urban and rural habitation, and veteran status. Not all members of any given group are involved in identity politics
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Third World
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War
Cold War
to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO
NATO
or the Communist Bloc. The United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Western European nations and their allies represented the First World, while the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and their allies represented the Second World. This terminology provided a way of broadly categorizing the nations of the Earth into three groups based on political and economic divisions. The Third World
Third World
was normally seen to include many countries with colonial pasts in Africa, Latin America, Oceania
Oceania
and Asia. It was also sometimes taken as synonymous with countries in the Non-Aligned Movement
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Christendom
Christendom[1][2][page needed] has several meanings. In one contemporary sense, as used in a secular or Protestant context, it may refer to the " Christian
Christian
world": worldwide community of Christians,[citation needed] the adherents of Christianity,[citation needed] the Christian-majority countries,[citation needed] the countries in which Christianity
Christianity
dominates[3] or prevails,[1] or, in the Catholic
Catholic
sense of the word, the nations in which Catholic Christianity
Christianity
is the established religion. Since the spread of Christianity
Christianity
from the Levant
Levant
to Europe
Europe
and North Africa during the early Roman Empire, Christendom
Christendom
has been divided in the pre-existing Greek East and Latin West
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Epistemology
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Epistemology
Epistemology
(/ɪˌpɪstɪˈmɒlədʒi/ ( listen); from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning 'knowledge', and λόγος, logos, meaning 'logical discourse') is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.[1] Epistemology
Epistemology
studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification,[2][3] (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification
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Ummah
Ummah
Ummah
(Arabic: أمة‎ [ˈʊm.mæ]) is an Arabic
Arabic
word meaning "community". It is distinguished from Shaʻb (شعب [ʃæʕb]) which means a nation with common ancestry or geography. Thus, it can be said to be a supra-national community with a common history. It is a synonym for ummat al-Islām (أمة الإسلام, 'the Islamic community'), and it is commonly used to mean the collective community of Islamic peoples
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Teleological
Teleology
Teleology
or finality[1][2] is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose or goal.[3] It is derived from two Greek words: telos (end, goal, purpose) and logos (reason, explanation). A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic.[4] Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy but controversial today,[5] contends that natural entities also have intrinsic purposes, irrespective of human use or opinion. For instance, Aristotle
Aristotle
claimed that an acorn's intrinsic telos is to become a fully grown oak tree.[6] Though ancient atomists rejected the notion of natural teleology, teleological accounts of non-personal or non-human nature were explored and often endorsed in ancient and medieval philosophies, but fell into disfavor during the modern era (1600–1900)
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Legalism (Western Philosophy)
Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. Legalism has occurred both in civil and common law traditions. In its narrower versions, legalism may endorse the notion that the pre-existing body of authoritative legal materials already contains a uniquely pre-determined right answer to any legal problem that may arise. Legalism typically also claims that the task of the judge is to ascertain the answer to a legal question by an essentially mechanical process. See also[edit]Legal positivism Natural law InterpretivismThis philosophy of law-related article is a stub
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Psychiatrist
A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders
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