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Population Transfer
Population transfer
Population transfer
or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development. Banishment or exile is a similar process, but is forcibly applied to individuals and groups. Often the affected population is transferred by force to a distant region, perhaps not suited to their way of life, causing them substantial harm. In addition, the loss of all immovable property and, when rushed, the loss of substantial amounts of movable property, is implied
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Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
(/duːˈmɑː, djuː-/; French: [alɛksɑ̃dʁ dyma]; born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie [dyma davi də la pajətʁi]; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870),[1] also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer. His works have been translated into nearly 100 languages,[citation needed] and he is one of the most widely read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were originally published as serials, including The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, and The Vicomte de Bragelonne: Ten Years Later. His novels have been adapted since the early twentieth century for nearly 200 films
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Propaganda
Propaganda
Propaganda
is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.[1] Propaganda is often associated with material prepared by governments, but activist groups, companies and the media can also produce propaganda. In the twentieth century, the term propaganda has been associated with a manipulative approach, but propaganda historically was a neutra
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Geoffrey Harrison
Sir Geoffrey Wedgwood Harrison GCMG KCVO (18 July 1908 – 12 April 1990) was a British diplomat, who served as the United Kingdom's ambassador to Brazil, Iran
Iran
and the Soviet Union. Harrison's tenure in Moscow was terminated in 1968, when he was recalled to London after his admission to the Foreign Office
Foreign Office
that he had an affair with his Russian maid, later revealed as a KGB
KGB
"honey trap" operation.[1][2]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Diplomatic career 3 Honours 4 References 5 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Harrison was born in Southsea, Hampshire. His parents were Thomas Edmund Harrison, a Commander in the Royal Navy, and Maud Winifred Godman. He was educated at Winchester College
Winchester College
in Hampshire
Hampshire
and then at King's College, Cambridge
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Nuremberg Trials
Coordinates: 49°27.2603′N 11°02.9103′E / 49.4543383°N 11.0485050°E / 49.4543383; 11.0485050 The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trials (German: Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II. The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, and their decisions marked a turning point between classical and contemporary international law. The first and best known set of these trials were those of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT)
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Fourth Geneva Convention
The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian
Civilian
Persons in Time of War, commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It was adopted in August 1949. While the first three conventions dealt with combatants, the Fourth Geneva Convention
Fourth Geneva Convention
was the first to deal with humanitarian protections for civilians in a war zone
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Customary International Law
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom
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Belligerent
A belligerent (lat. bellum gerere, "to wage war") is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. Belligerent comes from Latin, literally meaning "one who wages war".[1] Unlike the use of belligerent as an adjective to mean aggressive, its use as a noun does not necessarily imply that a belligerent country is an aggressor. In times of war, belligerent countries can be contrasted with neutral countries and non-belligerents. However, the application of the laws of war to neutral countries and the responsibilities of belligerents are not affected by any distinction between neutral countries, neutral powers or non-belligerents
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Military Occupation
Military occupation
Military occupation
is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.[1][2][3][4] Military occupation
Military occupation
is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.[2][5][6][7] Military government may be broadly characterized as the administration or supervision of occupied territory, or as the governmental form of such an administration
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Rome Statute Of The International Criminal Court
The Rome
Rome
Statute of the International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court
(often referred to as the
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International Criminal Tribunal For The Former Yugoslavia
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law
International Humanitarian Law
Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations
United Nations
established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators. The tribunal was an ad hoc court located in The Hague, Netherlands. The Court was established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council, which was passed on 25 May 1993. It had jurisdiction over four clusters of crimes committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991: grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws or customs of war, genocide, and crimes against humanity
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Nationalism
Nationalism
Nationalism
is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group's homeland. The political ideology therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism
Nationalism
is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared characteristics such as culture, language, race, religion, political goals or a belief in a common ancestry.[1][2] Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore seeks to preserve the nation's culture. It often also involves a sense of pride in the nation's achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism
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Oder-Neisse Line
The Oder– Neisse
Neisse
line (Polish: granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, German: Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland. It was drawn at the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
in the aftermath of the Second World War
Second World War
and is primarily delineated along the Oder
Oder
and Lusatian Neisse
Neisse
rivers in Central Europe, meeting the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the north, just west of the Polish seaports of Szczecin and Świnoujście
Świnoujście
(German: Stettin and Swinemünde). All prewar German territory east of the line and within the 1937 German boundaries (23.8% of the former Weimar Republic) were placed under International Law Administrative status, with most of it being made part of newly-Communist Poland
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Western Transvaal
The Province of the Transvaal (Afrikaans: Provinsie van die Transvaal), commonly referred to as the Transvaal (Afrikaans: Transvaal, Afrikaans pronunciation: [ˈtransfɑːl]), was a province of South Africa
South Africa
from 1910 until the end of apartheid in 1994, when a new constitution subdivided it. The name "Transvaal" refers to the province's geographical location to the north of the Vaal River. Its capital was Pretoria, which was also the country's executive capital.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Regions3 Districts in 1991 4 Administrators 5 Sports and culture 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] In 1910, four British colonies united to form the Union of South Africa. The Transvaal Colony, which had been formed out of the bulk of the old South African Republic
South African Republic
after the Second Boer War, became the Transvaal Province in the new union
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Sudetenland
The Sudetenland
Sudetenland
(/suːˈdeɪtənlænd/ ( listen); German: [zuˈdeːtn̩ˌlant]; Czech and Slovak: Sudety; Polish: Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans. These German speakers had predominated in the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia
Czech Silesia
from the time of the Austrian Empire. The word "Sudetenland" did not come into existence until the early 20th century and did not come to prominence until after the First World War, when the German-dominated Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
was dismembered and the Sudeten Germans
Sudeten Germans
found themselves living in the new country of Czechoslovakia
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History Of France
The first written records for the history of France
France
appear in the Iron Age. What is now France
France
made up the bulk of the region known to the Romans as Gaul. Roman writers noted the presence of three main ethno-linguistic groups in the area: the Gauls, the Aquitani, and the Belgae. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Romans and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast and the offshore islands
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