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Pope John XXII
Pope
Pope
John XXII (Latin: Ioannes XXII; 1244[1] – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope
Pope
from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334. He was the second and longest-reigning Avignon
Avignon
Pope, elected by the Conclave of Cardinals, which was assembled in Lyon
Lyon
through the work of King Louis X's brother Philip, the Count of Poitiers, later King Philip V of France
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Michael Of Cesena
Michael
Michael
/ˈmaɪkəl/ is a masculine given name that comes from Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל / מיכאל‎ (Mīkhāʼēl, pronounced [miχaˈʔel]), derived from the question מי כאל mī kāʼēl, meaning "Who is like God?".[1] Patronymic surnames that come from Michael
Michael
include Carmichael, DiMichele, MacMichael, McMichael, Michaels, Micallef, Michaelson, Michels, Mihály, Mikeladze, Mikhaylov, Mikkelsen, Mitchell and Mykhaylenko.Contents1 Religion 2 Popularity 3 See also 4 ReferencesReligion[edit] The name first appears in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
in the Book of Numbers, 13:13 where Sethur the son of Michael
Michael
is one of 12 spies sent into the Land of Canaan. Michael
Michael
features in the Book of Daniel
Book of Daniel
12:1, as the archangel in romanization, and in the Islamic Quran
Quran
as Mikaeel
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Ghibelline
The Guelphs and Ghibellines
Guelphs and Ghibellines
(/ɡwɛlfs/; /ˈɡɪbɪlaɪnz/, also US: /ˈɡɪbəliːnz/, /ˈɡɪbələnz/; Italian: guelfi e ghibellini [ˈɡwɛlfi e ɡɡibelˈliːni]) were factions supporting the Pope
Pope
and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms
Concordat of Worms
in 1122
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Knights Templar
The Crusades, including: Siege of Ascalon (1153) Battle of Montgisard
Battle of Montgisard
(1177) Battle of Marj Ayyun (1179)
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Fréjus
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Fréjus
Fréjus
(Occitan: Frejús, French pronunciation: ​[fʁe.ʒys]) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. It neighbours Saint-Raphaël, effectively forming one town
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Charles II Of Naples
Charles II, also known as Charles the Lame (French: Charles le Boiteux; Italian: Carlo lo Zoppo; 1254 – 5 May 1309), was King of Naples, Count of Provence
Count of Provence
and Forcalquier (1285–1309), Prince of Achaea (1285–1289), and Count of Anjou
Count of Anjou
and Maine (1285–1290); he also styled himself King of Albania
King of Albania
and claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1285. He was the son of Charles I of Anjou—one of the most powerful European monarchs in the second half of the 13th century—and Beatrice of Provence
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Toulouse
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Toulouse
Toulouse
(/tuːˈluːz/;[4] French: [tuluz] ( listen), locally [tuˈluzə] ( listen); Occitan: Tolosa [tuˈluzɔ], Latin: Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne
and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres (93 miles) from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km (143 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and 680 km (420 mi) from Paris. It is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014
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Canon Law
Canon law
Canon law
(from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches), the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion.[1] The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches
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University Of Paris
A university (Latin: universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines
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University Of Montpellier
The University of Montpellier
Montpellier
(French: Université de Montpellier) is a French public research university in Montpellier
Montpellier
in south-east of France
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Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
(historically Romanorum Imperator " Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(800-1806 CE, from Charlemagne
Charlemagne
to Francis II). The title was almost without interruption held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany.[1][2][3] From an autocracy in Carolingian
Carolingian
times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right by Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
rulers in Europe, and he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs
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Interregnum
An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin inter-, "between" and rēgnum, "reign" [from rex, rēgis, "king"]), and the concepts of interregnum and regency therefore overlap. Historically, the longer and heavier interregna were typically accompanied by widespread unrest, civil and succession wars between warlords, and power vacuums filled by foreign invasions or the emergence of a new power. A failed state is usually in interregnum. The term also refers to the periods between the election of a new parliament and the establishment of a new government from that parliament in parliamentary democracies, usually ones that employ some form of proportional representation that allows small parties to elect significant numbers, requiring time for negotiations to form a government
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Lyon
Centre: Parc de la Tête d'Or, Confluence district and the Vieux Lyon. Bottom: Pont Lafayette, Part-Dieu district with the Place Bellecour
Place Bellecour
in foreground during Festival of Lights.FlagCoat of armsMotto(s): Avant, avant, Lion le melhor. (Old Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon
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Guelphs And Ghibellines
The Guelphs and Ghibellines
Guelphs and Ghibellines
(/ɡwɛlfs/; /ˈɡɪbɪlaɪnz/, also US: /ˈɡɪbəliːnz/, /ˈɡɪbələnz/; Italian: guelfi e ghibellini [ˈɡwɛlfi e ɡɡibelˈliːni]) were factions supporting the Pope
Pope
and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms
Concordat of Worms
in 1122
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Louis X Of France
Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarreler, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (French: le Hutin), was a monarch of the House of Capet
House of Capet
who ruled as King of Navarre
King of Navarre
(as Louis I Basque: Luis I.a Nafarroakoa) and Count of Champagne
Count of Champagne
from 1305 and as King of France
France
from 1314 until his death. Louis was the eldest son of Philip IV of France
Philip IV of France
and Joan I of Navarre. His short reign as king of France
France
was marked by the hostility of the nobility against fiscal and centralization reforms initiated by Enguerrand de Marigny, the Grand Chamberlain of France, under the reign of his father
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France In The Middle Ages
The Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmenta
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