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Pope Clement VII
Pope
Pope
Clement VII (Italian: Papa Clemente VII; Latin: Clemens VII) (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and ruler of the Papal States
Papal States
from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.[1] “The most unfortunate of the Popes,” Clement VII’s reign was marked by a rapid succession of political, military, and religious struggles — many interrelated and long in the making — which had far-reaching consequences for Christianity and world politics. [2] Elected in 1523 at the end of the Italian Renaissance, Clement VII came to the papacy with a high reputation as a statesman, having served as chief advisor to both Pope
Pope
Leo X
Leo X
(1513-1521) and Pope
Pope
Adrian VI (1522-1523)
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Antipope
An antipope (Latin: antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope,[1] the Bishop of Rome
Rome
and leader of the Catholic Church. At times between the 3rd and mid-15th century, antipopes were supported by a fairly significant faction of religious cardinals and secular or anti-religious monarchs and kingdoms
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Malta
Coordinates: 35°53′N 14°30′E / 35.883°N 14.500°E / 35.883; 14.500 Malta
Malta
(/ˈmɒltə, ˈmɔːl-/ ( listen); Maltese: [ˈmɐltɐ]), officially known as the Republic of Malta (Maltese: Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea.[10] It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia,[11] and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya.[12] The country covers just over 316 km2 (122 sq mi),[4] with a population of just under 450,000,[5] making it one of the world's smallest[13][14][15] and most densely populated countries
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Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
(Italian: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath. Galileo is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system.[4] He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism because of th
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Parmigianino
Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola (also known as Francesco Mazzola or, more commonly, as Parmigianino
Parmigianino
(Italian pronunciation: [parmidʒanˈiːno], "the little one from Parma"); 11 January 1503 – 24 August 1540) was an Italian Mannerist painter and printmaker active in Florence, Rome, Bologna, and his native city of Parma. His work is characterized by a "refined sensuality" and often elongation of forms and includes Vision of Saint Jerome (1527) and the iconic if somewhat untypical Madonna with the Long Neck (1534), and he remains the best known artist of the first generation whose whole careers fall into the Mannerist period.[2] His prodigious and individual talent has always been recognised, but his career was disrupted by war, especially the Sack of Rome
Rome
in 1527, three years after he moved there, and then ended by his death at only 37
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Suleiman The Magnificent
Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: سلطان سليمان اول‎ Sultan Süleyman-ı Evvel; Turkish: Birinci Süleyman, Kanunî Sultan Süleyman or Muhteşem Süleyman;[3] 6 November 1494 – 6 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
in the West and Kanunî Sultan
Sultan
Süleyman (Ottoman Turkish: قانونى سلطان سليمان‎‎; "The Lawgiver Suleiman") in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
from 1520 until his death in 1566.[4] Under his administration, the Ottoman state ruled over 15 to 25 million people. Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's economic, military and political power
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Turkish People
  Turkey
Turkey
63,589,988–65,560,701 (2008 est. of 2015 pop.)[1]   Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
280,000 d[›][2][3] Germany 2,852,000 (incl
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Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator[1]) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope, due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor". Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles
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Martin Luther
Martin Luther, O.S.A. (/ˈluːθər/;[1] German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈlʊtɐ] ( listen); 10 November 1483[2] – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk,[3] and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. He strongly disputed the Catholic view on indulgences. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
of 1517
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Antipope Clement VII
Robert of Geneva (French: Robert de Genève) (1342 – 16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy as Clement VII (French: Clément VII) by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, and was the first antipope residing in Avignon, France
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Italian Renaissance
Transition from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the Modern era Renaissance
Renaissance
spreads to the rest of Europe Development of capitalism, banking, merchantilism and accounting: beginning of the European Great Divergence Explorers from the Italian maritime r
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Florence
Florence
Florence
(/ˈflɒrəns/ FLORR-ənss; Italian: Firenze [fiˈrɛntse] ( listen))[2] is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.[3] Florence
Florence
was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era.[4] It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called "the Athens
Athens
of the Middle Ages".[5] A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions.[6] From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy
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