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Pope Benedict XV
Pope
Pope
Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus; Italian: Benedetto), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa[a] (21 November 1854 – 22 January 1922) was head of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
from 3 September 1914 until his death in 1922. His pontificate was largely overshadowed by World War I
World War I
and its political, social, and humanitarian consequences in Europe. Between 1846 and 1903, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
had experienced two of its longest pontificates in history up to that point. Together Pius IX
Pius IX
and Leo XIII
Leo XIII
ruled for a total of 57 years
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Marchese
A marquess (UK: /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/;[1] French: marquis, [mɑʁki];[2] Italian: marchese, Spanish: marqués, Portuguese: marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan. In the German lands, a Margrave
Margrave
was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg, the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave
Margrave
of Bayreuth), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe
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Ecclesiastical Latin
Corpus Juris CanoniciDecretist Regulæ Juris Decretals of Gregory IXDecretalistDecretum Gratiani Extravagantes Liber SeptimusAncient Church OrdersDidache The Apostolic ConstitutionsCanons of the ApostlesCollections of ancient canonsCollectiones canonum Dionysianae Collectio canonum quadripartita Collectio canonum Quesnelliana Collectio canonum WigorniensisOtherPseudo-Isidorian Decretals Benedictus Deus (Pius IV) Contractum trinius Defect of Birth Jus exclusivae Papal appointmentOriental lawCode of Canons of the Eastern Churches Eastern Canonical Reforms of Pius XII Nomocanon ArcheparchyEparchyLiturgical lawEcclesia Dei Mysterii Paschalis Sacrosanctum conciliumMusicam sacramSummorum Pontificum Tra le sollecitudiniSacramental lawCanon 844 Ex opere operato Omnium in mentem Valid but illicitHoly OrdersImpediment (canon law)Abstemius


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Famine
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food,[1] caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality. Every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was generally Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe
Europe
that suffered the most deaths from famine. The numbers dying from famine began to fall sharply from the 1970s. Some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. Since 2010, Africa
Africa
has been the most affected continent in the world
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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
"The Internationale" (1918–1944)"National Anthem of the Soviet Union" (1944–1990)"The Patriotic Song" (1990–1991)Extent of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
(red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) following World War II
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Nuncio
Nuncio
Nuncio
(officially known as an Apostolic nuncio and also known as a papal nuncio) is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See
Holy See
to a state or international organization. A nuncio is appointed by and represents the Holy See, and is the head of the diplomatic mission, called an Apostolic Nunciature, which is the equivalent of an embassy. The Holy See
Holy See
is legally distinct from the Vatican City
Vatican City
or the Catholic Church. A nuncio is usually an archbishop. A papal nuncio is generally equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, although in Catholic countries
Catholic countries
the nuncio often ranks above ambassadors in diplomatic protocol. A nuncio performs the same functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges
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Cardinal Secretary Of State
The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope, commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See
Holy See
Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia.[1] The Secretariat of State performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See
Holy See
and the Vatican City. The Secretary of State is sometimes described as the prime minister of the Holy See,[2] even though the nominal head of government of Vatican City is the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. The Secretary of State is currently Cardinal Pietro Parolin.[3]Contents1 Duties 2 History 3 List3.1 Secretaries of State between 1551 and 1644 3.2 Cardinal Secretaries of State since 16444 See also 5 Notes 6 External linksDuties[edit] The Cardinal Secretary is appointed by the Pope, and serves as one of his principal advisors
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Berengar II Of Italy
Berengar II (c. 900 – 4 August 966) was the King of Italy
King of Italy
from 950 until his deposition in 961. He was a scion of the Anscarid and Unruoching dynasties, and was named after his maternal grandfather, Berengar I. He succeeded his father as Margrave of Ivrea around 923 (whence he is often known as Berengar of Ivrea), and after 940 led the aristocratic opposition to Kings Hugh and Lothair II. In 950 he succeeded the latter and had his son, Adalbert crowned as his co-ruler. In 952 he recognised the suzerainty of Otto I of Germany, but he later joined a revolt against him. In 960 he invaded the Papal States, and the next year his kingdom was conquered by Otto. Berengar remained at large until his surrender in 964
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Georges Clemenceau
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau[1] (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔʁʒ bɛ̃ʒamɛ̃ klemɑ̃so];[2] 28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
during the First World War. A leader of the Radical Party, he played a central role in the politics of the French Third Republic. Clemenceau was first Prime Minister from 1906 to 1909, and then again from 1917 to 1920. In favour of a total victory over the German Empire, he militated for the restitution of Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine
to France. He was one of the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
at the Paris
Paris
Peace Conference of 1919
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Marchesa
A marquess (UK: /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/;[1] French: marquis, [mɑʁki];[2] Italian: marchese, Spanish: marqués, Portuguese: marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan. In the German lands, a Margrave
Margrave
was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg, the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave
Margrave
of Bayreuth), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Monsignore
Monsignor
Monsignor
(/mɒnˈsiːnjər/) is an honorific form of address for those members of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
including bishops, honorary prelates and canons. In some cases, these ecclesiastical honorific titles derive from the pope, but in other cases it is simply a customary or honorary style belonging to a prelate or honorary prelate. These are granted to individuals who have rendered valuable service to the Church, or who provide some special function in Church governance, or who are members of bodies such as certain chapters. The title is never bestowed on those classified as religious in Catholicism
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Rome
Rome
Rome
(/roʊm/ ROHM; Italian: Roma i[ˈroːma]; Latin: Roma [ˈroːma]) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio
Lazio
region. With 2,874,558 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi),[1] it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents.[2] Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
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Kingdom Of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia[nb 1] was a state in Southern Europe
Southern Europe
which existed from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. It was the predecessor state of the Kingdom of Italy.[7] Before it was acquired by the Duke of Savoy
Savoy
in 1720, it was a small Iberian state with weak institutions. However, the Savoyards united it with their possessions on the Italian mainland and, by the time of the Crimean War
Crimean War
in 1853, had built the resulting kingdom into a strong power
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