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Pope Paul III
Pope
Pope
Paul III (Latin: Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope
Pope
from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome
Rome
in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
following the Protestant Reformation. During his pontificate, and in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation, new Catholic religious orders and societies, such as the Jesuits, the Barnabites, and the Congregation of the Oratory, attracted a popular following. He convened the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
in 1545. He was a significant patron of the arts and employed nepotism to advance the power and fortunes of his family
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Patriarch Paul III Of Constantinople
Paul III (Greek: Παῦλος Γʹ; died 20 August 694) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
from 687 to 693.[1] References[edit]^ "List of Patriarchs"
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Protodeacon
Protodeacon
Protodeacon
derives from the Greek proto- meaning 'first' and diakonos, which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning "assistant", "servant", or "waiting-man". The word in English may refer to any of various clergy, depending upon the usage of the particular church in question.Contents1 Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches 2 Latin Church 3 Canon law references 4 External linksEastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches[edit]Portrait of an Orthodox protodeacon wearing the distinctive burgundy skufia, by Ilya Repin, 1877 (Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow). Protodeacon
Protodeacon
is an honorific rank given to certain married deacons in Eastern Christian
Eastern Christian
churches. In the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
it is an honorary title given to married deacons, as a mark of which, the clergyman is entitled to wear a burgundy-colored skufia
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College Of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.[1] Its membership is 214, as of 19 March 2018.[update] Most cardinals exit the College only by death, although a few leave it by election to the papacy, and still fewer leave by resignation or dismissal. Changes in life expectancy partly account for the increases in the size of the College.[2] Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
in the Early Middle Ages, the size of the body has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself
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Ostia Antica (district)
Ostia Antica
Ostia Antica
is a district in the commune of Rome, Italy, five kilometers away from the coast. It is distinct from Ostia. History[edit] For ancient history of the site, see Ostia Antica. Under the Romans, Ostia Antica
Ostia Antica
reached a peak of some 75,000 inhabitants in the 2nd and 3rd century AD. A slow decline began in the time of Constantine I, and the decaying conditions of the city were mentioned by St. Augustine when he passed through in the late 4th century. His mother, St. Monica, died in an inn here. The poet Rutilius Namatianus also reported the lack of maintenance of the city in 414. Ostia became an episcopal see as early as the 3rd century AD, with the cathedral (titulus) of Santa Aurea
Santa Aurea
erected over the tomb of St. Monica. As the centuries passed, Ostia fell into ruin but continued to provide maritime access for visitors to Rome
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Curia
Curia
Curia
( Latin
Latin
plural curiae) in ancient Rome
Rome
referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one. While they originally likely had wider powers,[1] they came to meet for a very few purposes by the end of the Republic: in order to confirm the election of magistrates with imperium, to witness the installation of priests, the making of wills, and certain adoptions. The term is more broadly used to designate an assembly, council, or court, in which public, official, or religious issues are discussed and decided. Lesser curiae existed for other purposes
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Apostolic Notary
A notarius is a public secretary who is appointed by competent authority to draw up official or authentic documents (compare English "notary"). In the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
there have been apostolic notaries and even episcopal notaries.[1] Documents drawn up by notarii are issued chiefly from the official administrative offices, the chanceries; secondly, from tribunals; lastly, others are drawn up at the request of individuals to authenticate their contracts or other acts. The title and office existed in the bureaucracy of the Christianised Roman Empire at the Imperial Court, where the college of imperial notaries were governed by a primicerius.[2] From the usage in the Emperor's representative in the West, the Exarch of Ravenna, the post and title was applied in the increasingly complicated bureaucracy of the Papal curia
Papal curia
in Rome
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Lorenzo De' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
(Italian pronunciation: [loˈrɛntso de ˈmɛːditʃi], 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492[1]) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic
Florentine Republic
and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance
Renaissance
culture in Italy.[2][3][4] Also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (Lorenzo il Magnifico [loˈrɛntso il maɲˈɲiːfiko]) by contemporary Florentines, he was a magnate, diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists and poets. As a patron, he is best known for his sponsorship of artists such as Botticelli
Botticelli
and Michelangelo
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University Of Pisa
A university (Latin: universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines
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Caetani
Caetani, or Gaetani, is the name of an Italian noble family which played a great part in the history of Pisa and of Rome, principally via their close links to the papacy.Contents1 Origins 2 Lines2.1 Caetani 2.2 Gaetani Dell'Aquila d'Aragona3 References 4 SourcesOrigins[edit]The Gaetani coat of arms during the time of Boniface VIIIThe Caetani, or Gaetani family has Roman and Gothic origins. According to family tradition they were descendants of the Dukes of Gaeta, and traced their maternal ancestry to the Roman gens Anicia through the Counts of Tusculum. The founder of the house was Marinus I, Duke of Fondi, son of Docibilis II of Gaeta, from which the family gets its name. His successor was Constantine, who took the name Cagetanus and ruled in the latter half of the 10th century. In the late eleventh century, a descendant of his, Crescentius, was duke
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Montalto Di Castro
Montalto di Castro
Montalto di Castro
is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Viterbo
Viterbo
in the Italian region Lazio, located about 90 kilometres (56 miles) northwest of Rome
Rome
and about 40 kilometres (25 miles) west of Viterbo. It is home to a large fossil-fuel powered power plant managed by ENEL and the largest solar PV power plant in Italy.Contents1 Transportation 2 Notable people 3 References 4 External linksTransportation[edit] Montalto di Castro
Montalto di Castro
is linked by road to the European route E80 motorway
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Congregation Of The Oratory
The Congregation of the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri
Philip Neri
is a pontifical society of apostolic life of Catholic priests and lay-brothers who live together in a community bound together by no formal vows but only with the bond of charity. They are commonly referred to as Oratorians (Oratorian Fathers). This "Congregation of the Oratory" should not be confused with the French Oratory, a distinct congregation, the Society of the Oratory of Jesus
Oratory of Jesus
(Société de l'Oratoire de Jésus), founded by Pierre de Bérulle
Pierre de Bérulle
in 1611 in Paris. Founded in Rome
Rome
(then capital of the Papal States) in 1575 by St. Philip Neri, today it has spread around the world, with over 70 Oratories and some 500 priests. The post-nominal initials commonly used to identify members of the society are "C.O." (Congregatio Oratorii). The abbreviation "Cong
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Barnabites
The Barnabites
Barnabites
are Catholic priests and Religious Brothers belonging to the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
religious order of the Clerics Regular of St. Paul (Latin: Clerici Regulares Sancti Pauli), founded in 1530. While they used to use the postnominal initials of simply "B.", they currently use C.R.S.P. Associated to the members of the Order are the Angelic Sisters of St
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Protestant Reformation
The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity
Christianity
initiated by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Jacobus Arminius
Jacobus Arminius
and other Protestant Reformers
Protestant Reformers
in 16th-century Europe. It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Although there had been earlier attempts to reform the Catholic Church – such as those of Jan Hus, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola – Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation
Reformation
with the Ninety-five Theses
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Sack Of Rome (1527)
Empire of Charles V: Holy Roman Empire Spain Duchy of GuastallaCommanders and leaders Clement VII (POW) Kaspar Röist † Renzo da Ceri Ferrante Gonzaga Charles de Bourbon † Philibert of Châlon (WIA)Strength5,000 Condottieri
Condottieri
militia, 189 Swiss Guards 20,000 (mutinous)Casualties and losses500 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown45,000 civilians dead, wounded, or exiledv t eWar of the League of CognacNorth Italy
Italy
'27 Rome South Italy
Italy
'28 Naples Capo d'Orso Landriano Florence Gavinanav t eItalian Wars1494–98 1499–1504 League of Cambrai Urbino 1521–26 League of Cognac 1536–38 1542–46 1551–1559Full list of battlesThe Sack of Rome
Rome
on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out in Rome
Rome
(then part of the Papal States) by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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