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Pompeii
Pompeii
Pompeii
was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania
Campania
region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum
Herculaneum
and many villas in the surrounding area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Vesuvius
in AD 79. Archaeologists believe that the town was founded in the 7th or 6th century BC by the Osci
Osci
or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome in the 4th century BC, and was conquered and became a Roman colony in 80 BC after it joined an unsuccessful rebellion against the Roman Republic
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Phoenicia
Coordinates: 34°07′25″N 35°39′04″E / 34.12361°N 35.65111°E / 34.12361; 35.65111Phoeniciaknʿn / kanaʿan  (Phoenician) Φοινίκη / Phoiníkē  (Greek)1500 BC[1]–539 BCMap of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and its Mediterranean trade routesCapital Not specifiedLanguages Phoenician, PunicReligion Canaanite religionGovernment City-states ruled by kingsWell-known kings of Phoenician cities •  c. 1000 BC Ahiram •  969 – 936 BC Hiram I •  820 – 774 BC
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Sediment
Sediment
Sediment
is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if buried, may eventually become sandstone and siltstone (sedimentary rocks). Sediments are most often transported by water (fluvial processes), but also wind (aeolian processes) and glaciers. Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition, though sediment also often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian transport and deposition
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Amphitheatre
An amphitheatre or amphitheater /ˈæmfɪˌθiːətər/[1][2] is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον (amphitheatron),[3] from ἀμφί (amphi), meaning "on both sides" or "around"[4] and θέατρον (théātron), meaning "place for viewing".[5][6] Ancient Roman amphitheatres
Ancient Roman amphitheatres
were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium. In contrast both ancient Greek and ancient Roman theatres were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating rising on one side of the performance area. In modern usage, an "amphitheatre" may consist of theatre-style stages with spectator seating on only one side, theatres in the round, and stadia
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Latin Declension
Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined, or have their endings altered to show grammatical case and gender. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are declined (verbs are conjugated), and a given pattern is called a declension. There are five declensions, which are numbered and grouped by ending and grammatical gender. For simple declension paradigms, visit the Wiktionary appendices: first declension, second declension, third declension, fourth declension, fifth declension. Each noun follows one of the five declensions, but some irregular nouns have exceptions. Adjectives are of two kinds: those like bonus, bona, bonum 'good' belong to the first and second declensions, using first-declension endings for the feminine, and second-declension for masculine and neuter. Other adjectives such as celer, celeris, celere belong to the third declension
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Osci
The Osci
Osci
(also called Opici, Opsci, Obsci, Opicans, Ancient Greek: Ὀπικοί, Ὀσκοί),[1] were an Italic people
Italic people
of Campania
Campania
and Latium adiectum
Latium adiectum
during Roman times. They spoke the Oscan language, also spoken by the Samnites
Samnites
of Southern Italy. Although the language of the Samnites
Samnites
was called Oscan, the Samnites
Samnites
were never called Osci, or the Osci
Osci
Samnites. Traditions of the Opici fall into the legendary period of Italian history, approximately the first half of the first millennium BC, down to the foundation of the Roman Republic. No agreement can be reached concerning their location and language
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Oscan Language
Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language
Indo-European language
of southern Italy. The language is also the namesake of the language group to which it belonged. As a member of the Italic languages, Oscan is therefore a sister language to Latin
Latin
and Umbrian. Oscan was spoken by a number of tribes, including the Samnites,[3] the Aurunci
Aurunci
(Ausones), and the Sidicini. The latter two tribes were often grouped under the name "Osci". The Oscan group is part of the Osco-Umbrian
Osco-Umbrian
or Sabellic family, and includes the Oscan language
Oscan language
and three variants (Hernican, Marrucinian and Paelignian) known only from inscriptions left by the Hernici, Marrucini and Paeligni, minor tribes of eastern central Italy
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Samnites
The Samnites
Samnites
were an ancient Italic people
Italic people
who lived in Samnium
Samnium
in south-central Italy. They became involved in several wars with the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
until the 1st century BC. An Oscan-speaking people, the Samnites
Samnites
probably originated as an offshoot of the Sabines
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Pumice
Pumice
Pumice
( /ˈpʌmɪs/), called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals. It is typically light colored. Scoria
Scoria
is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles, thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored and denser.[1][2] Pumice
Pumice
is created when super-heated, highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (including water and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava, causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened)
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Volcanic Ash
Volcanic ash
Volcanic ash
consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.[1] The term volcanic ash is also often loosely used to refer to all explosive eruption products (correctly referred to as tephra), including particles larger than 2mm. Volcanic ash
Volcanic ash
is formed during explosive volcanic eruptions when dissolved gases in magma expand and escape violently into the atmosphere. The force of the escaping gas shatters the magma and propels it into the atmosphere where it solidifies into fragments of volcanic rock and glass. Ash
Ash
is also produced when magma comes into contact with water during phreatomagmatic eruptions, causing the water to explosively flash to steam leading to shattering of magma
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Comune
The comune (IPA: [koˈmune]; plural: comuni, IPA: [koˈmuni]) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.Contents1 Importance and function 2 Subdivisions 3 Homonymy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksImportance and function[edit] The comune provides many of the basic civil functions: registry of births and deaths, registry of deeds, and contracting for local roads and public works. It is headed by a mayor (sindaco) assisted by a legislative body, the consiglio comunale (communal council), and an executive body, the giunta comunale (communal committee). The mayor and members of the consiglio comunale are elected together by resident citizens: the coalition of the elected mayor (who needs an absolute majority in the first or second round of voting) gains three fifths of the consiglio's seats
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World Heritage Committee
The World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 states parties[1] that are elected by the General Assembly of States Parties for a four-year term.[2] According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is six years, however many State's Parties choose to voluntarily limit their
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Necropolis
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek νεκρόπολις nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead". The term usually implies a separate burial site at a distance from a city, as opposed to tombs within cities, which were common in various places and periods of history. They are different from grave fields, which did not have remains above the ground. While the word is most commonly used for ancient sites, the name was revived in the early 19th century and applied to planned city cemeteries, such as the Glasgow Necropolis. History[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Sherd
In archaeology, a sherd, or more precisely, potsherd,[1] is commonly a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels, as well.[citation needed] Occasionally, a piece of broken pottery may be referred to as a shard. While the spelling shard is generally reserved for referring to fragments of glass vessels, the term does not exclude pottery fragments. The etymology is connected with the idea of breakage, from Old English sceard, related to Old Norse skarth, "notch", and Middle High German scharte, "notch".[citation needed] A sherd or potsherd that has been used by having writing painted or inscribed on it can be more precisely referred to as an ostracon. The analysis of sherds is widely used by archaeologists to date sites and develop chronologies, due to their diagnostic characteristics and high resistance to natural, destructive processes
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Second Punic War
768,50054,000 Active Roman soldiers 53,500 Roman capital detail 388,000 Socii 273,300 ReservesUnknownCasualties and losses300,000+ killed in action Unknownv t eSecond Punic WarPreludeSaguntum Rhone Crossing of the AlpsItalyTicinus Trebia Lake Trasimene Ager Falernus Geronium Cannae 1st Nola 2nd Nola 3rd Nola 1st Beneventum 1st Tarentum 1st Capua Silarus 1st Herdonia 2nd Beneventum 2nd Capua 2nd Herdonia Numistro Battle of Canusium 2nd Tarentum Grumentum Metaurus Crotona Po ValleyIberiaCissa Dertosa Upper Baetis 1st New Carthage Baecula Carmona Sucro Ilipa Guadalquivir Sicily
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World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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