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Polo
Polo
Polo
is a team sport played on horseback. The objective is to score goals against an opposing team. Players score by driving a small hard white ball into the opposing team's goal using a long-handled wooden mallet. The modern sport of polo is played on a grass field of 300 by 160 yards (270 by 150 m). Each polo team consists of four riders and their polo ponies. Arena polo has three players per team and the game usually involves more maneuvering and shorter plays at lower speeds due to space limitations of arenas. Arena polo is played with a small air-filled ball, similar to a small football. The modern game usually lasts one to two hours and is divided into periods called chukkas (or "chukkers"). Polo
Polo
is played professionally in 16 countries
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Qutubuddin Aibak
Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak[2] also spelt Quṭb ud-Dīn Aibak or Qutub ud-Din Aybak, (1150–1210), was the founder of the Mamluk dynasty and the first sultan of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.Contents1 History1.1 Works 1.2 Death and successor2 ReferencesHistory[edit] Quṭb al-Din Aibak was born to Turkic parents in Turkistan. In his childhood, Aibak was sold as a slave and raised at Nishapur, Persia, where he was purchased by the local Qazi.[1] After the death of his master, he was sold by his master's son and eventually became a slave of Muhammad of Ghor
Muhammad of Ghor
who made him the Amir-i-Akhur, the Master of Slave.[1] Eventually, Aibak was appointed to military command and became an able general of Muhammad of Ghor. In 1193 and after conquering Delhi,[1] his master returned to Khorāsān and left the consolidation of the Ghūrid conquests in northwest India to him
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Basil I
Basil I, called the Macedonian (Greek: Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios ō Makedṓn; 811 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
who reigned from 867 to 886. Born a simple peasant in the theme of Macedonia, he rose in the Imperial court, and usurped the Imperial throne from Emperor Michael III
Michael III
(r. 842–867). Despite his humble origins, he showed great ability in running the affairs of state, leading to a revival of Imperial power and a renaissance of Byzantine
Byzantine
art
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John I Of Trebizond
Trebizond may refer to:Trabzon, a city in Turkey formerly known as Trebizond Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
(1204–1461), a successor state to the Eastern Roman Empire Vilayet of Trebizond (1867–1923), a province of Ottoman TurkeySee also[edit]The Towers of Trebizond, a 1956 novel by Rose MacaulayThis disambiguation page lists
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Abbas I Of Iran
Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (Persian: شاه عباس بزرگ‎; 27 January 1571 – 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah
Shah
(king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad Khodabanda.[1] Although Abbas would preside over the apex of Iran's military, political and economic power, he came to the throne during a troubled time for the Safavid Empire. Under his weak-willed father, the country was riven with discord between the different factions of the Qizilbash army, who killed Abbas' mother and elder brother. Meanwhile, Iran's enemies, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(its archrival) and the Uzbeks, exploited this political chaos to seize territory for themselves
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Isfahan
Isfahan
Isfahan
(Persian: اصفهان‎, translit. Esfahān [esfæˈhɒːn] ( listen)), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province
Isfahan Province
in Iran, located about 340 kilometres (211 miles) south of Tehran. The Greater Isfahan Region
Greater Isfahan Region
had a population of 2,101,220 in the 2016 Census, the third most populous metropolitan area in Iran
Iran
after Tehran and Mashhad
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Muslim Conquests
Islamic expansion:   under Muhammad, 622–632   under Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs, 632–661   under Umayyad caliphs, 661–750BelligerentsSee list Sasanian Empire Lakhmids Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire Ghassanids Bulgarian Empire Kingdom of
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Shapur II
Shapur II
Shapur II
(Middle Persian: 𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩‎ Šāpuhr), also known as Shapur II
Shapur II
the Great, was the tenth Shahanshah
Shahanshah
of the Sasanian Empire. The longest-reigning monarch in Iranian history, he reigned for his entire 70-year life from 309 to 379. He was the son of Hormizd II (r. 302–309). His reign saw the military resurgence of the country, and the expansion of its territory, which marked the start of the first Sasanian golden era. He is thus along with Shapur I
Shapur I
and Khosrow I regarded as one of the most illustrious Sasanian kings. His three direct successors, on the other hand, were less successful. Shapur II
Shapur II
pursued a harsh religious policy
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Ayyubid
The Ayyubid dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
(Arabic: الأيوبيون‎ al-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish: خانەدانی ئەیووبیان‎ Xanedana Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin[2][3][4] founded by Saladin
Saladin
and centred in Egypt. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East
Middle East
during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin
Saladin
had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171
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Mameluke
Mamluk
Mamluk
(Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves
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Parthian Empire
The Parthian Empire
Empire
(/ˈpɑːrθiən/; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire
Empire
(/ˈɑːrsəsɪd/),[9] was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran
Iran
and Iraq.[10] Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia[11] who, as leader of the Parni
Parni
tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia[12] in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia
Parthia
(r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire
Empire
stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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Sultan
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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Turkic Peoples
Islam (Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja'fari) Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Christianity) Judaism (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites) Irreligion (Agnosticism · Atheism) Buddhism, Animism, Tengrism, Shamanism, ManiThe Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia
Western Asia
as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. They speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family.[27] As racial purity has never been a Turkic membership criterion, many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
through language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion in a process called Turkification
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Iranian Peoples
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle Dnieper Bronze
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