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Polo
POLO (Persian : چوگان chogān) is a team sport played on horseback . The objective is to score goals against an opposing team. Players score by driving a small white plastic or wooden ball into the opposing team's goal using a long-handled mallet. The traditional sport of polo is played on a grass field up to 300 by 160 yards (270 by 150 m). Each polo team consists of four riders and their mounts. Field polo is played with a solid plastic ball which has replaced the wooden version of the ball in much of the sport. In arena polo, only three players are required per team and the game usually involves more maneuvering and shorter plays at lower speeds due to space limitations of arenas. Arena polo is played with a small air-filled ball, similar to a small football. The modern game lasts roughly two hours and is divided into periods called chukkas (occasionally rendered as "chukkers"). Polo
Polo
is played professionally in 16 countries
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Isfahan
ISFAHAN (Persian : اصفهان‎, translit. Esfahān‎: pronounced esfæˈhɒːn (help ·info )), historically also rendered in English as ISPAHAN, SEPAHAN, ESFAHAN or HISPAHAN, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran
Iran
, located about 340 kilometres (211 miles) south of Tehran
Tehran
. The Greater Isfahan Region had a population of 3,793,104 in the 2011 Census, the second most populous metropolitan area in Iran
Iran
after Tehran. The counties of Isfahan, Borkhar , Najafabad , Khomeynishahr
Khomeynishahr
, Shahinshahr , Mobarakeh , Falavarjan , Tiran o Karvan , Lenjan and Jay all constitute the metropolitan city of Isfahan
Isfahan

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Abbas I Of Iran
SHāH ABBāS THE GREAT or SHāH ABBāS I OF PERSIA (Persian : شاه عباس بزرگ‎‎; 27 January 1571 – 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah
Shah
(king) of Iran
Iran
, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad Khodabanda
Mohammad Khodabanda
. Although Abbas would preside over the apex of Iran's military, political and economic power, he came to the throne during a troubled time for the Safavid Empire . Under his weak-willed father, the country was riven with discord between the different factions of the Qizilbash
Qizilbash
army, who killed Abbas' mother and elder brother. Meanwhile, Iran's enemies, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(its archrival) and the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
, exploited this political chaos to seize territory for themselves
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Saladin
AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB (Arabic : صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب‎‎ / ALA-LC : Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; Kurdish : سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی‎ / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as SALAH AD-DIN or SALADIN (/ˈsælədɪn/ ; 1137 – 4 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
. A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity, Saladin
Saladin
led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant
Levant
. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia , the Hejaz
Hejaz
, Yemen
Yemen
and other parts of North Africa
North Africa

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John I Of Trebizond
JOHN I AXOUCHOS (Greek : Ιωάννης Α΄ Αξούχος, Iōannēs I Axoukhos) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1235 to 1238. One editor reads the text of the chronicle of Michael Panaretos as stating that John ruled six years; although William Miller follows Fallmerayer in assuming this was a mistake for three years, another possible solution is that John was co-ruler with his predecessor Andronikos I Gidos for three years then ruled alone for three more. He was the eldest son of Alexios I of Trebizond and a woman the primary sources do not identify; some writers have named her Theodora Axuchina . Miller suggests that he was perhaps a minor at the time of his father's death in 1222, for his father was succeeded by the throne passed to Alexis' son-in-law, Andronikos I Gidos
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Theodosius II
THEODOSIUS II (Latin : Flavius Theodosius Iunior Augustus; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450), commonly surnamed THEODOSIUS THE YOUNGER, or THEODOSIUS THE CALLIGRAPHER , was the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperor from 408 to 450. He is mostly known for promulgating the Theodosian law code , and for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople
Constantinople
. He also presided over the outbreak of two great christological controversies , Nestorianism
Nestorianism
and Eutychianism . CONTENTS* 1 Life * 1.1 University and Law Code * 1.2 Wars with the Huns, Vandals, and Persians * 1.3 Theological disputes * 1.4 Death * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Sources * 5 External links LIFETheodosius was born in 401 as the only son of Emperor Arcadius and his Frankish-born wife Aelia Eudoxia
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Basil I
BASIL I, called THE MACEDONIAN (Greek : Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios ō Makedṓn; 811 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
who reigned from 867 to 886. Born a simple peasant in the Byzantine
Byzantine
theme of Macedonia , he rose in the Imperial court, and usurped the Imperial throne from Emperor Michael III
Michael III
(r. 842–867). Despite his humble origins, he showed great ability in running the affairs of state, leading to a revival of Imperial power and a renaissance of Byzantine art
Byzantine art
. He was perceived by the Byzantines as one of their greatest emperors, and the Macedonian dynasty , which he founded, ruled over what is regarded as the most glorious and prosperous era of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire

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Sultan
SULTAN (/ˈsʌltən/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate , or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a SULTANATE (سلطنة salṭanah)
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Qutubuddin Aibak
QUṭB AL-DīN AIBAK also spelt QUṭB UD-DīN AIBAK or QUTUB UD-DIN AYBAK, (1150–1210), was the founder of the Mamluk dynasty and the first sultan of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Works * 1.2 Death and successor * 2 References HISTORYQuṭb al-Din Aibak was born to Turkic parents in Turkistan . In his childhood, Aibak was sold as a slave and raised at Nishapur
Nishapur
, Persia
Persia
, where he was purchased by the local Qazi. After the death of his master, he was sold by his master's son and eventually became a slave of Muhammad of Ghor who made him the Amir-i-Akhur, the Master of Slave. Eventually, Aibak was appointed to military command and became an able general of Muhammad of Ghor
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Mameluke
MAMLUK (Arabic : مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most commonly used to refer to Muslim slave soldiers and Muslim rulers of slave origin
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Egypt
Coordinates : 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30 Arab Republic
Republic
of Egypt جمهورية مصر العربية * ARABIC : Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyah EGYPTIAN : Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Bilady, Bilady, Bilady " "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country" Capital and largest
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Ayyubid
The AYYUBID DYNASTY (Arabic : الأيوبيون‎‎ al-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish : خانەدانی ئەیووبیان‎ Xanedana Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin
Saladin
and centered in Egypt
Egypt
. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East
Middle East
during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171. Three years later, he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din
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Muslim Conquests
Islamic expansion: under Muhammad
Muhammad
, 622–632 under Rashidun caliphs , 632–661 under Umayyad caliphs , 661–750 BELLIGERENTS See list * Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire

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Turkic Peoples
Islam ( Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja\'fari ) Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Christianity ) Judaism (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites ) Irreligion ( Agnosticism · Atheism ) Buddhism , Animism , Tengrism , Shamanism , Mani The TURKIC PEOPLES are a collection of ethnic groups that live in central, eastern, northern, and western Asia as well as parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family . They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds
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Northern India
NORTH INDIA is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India
India
. The dominant geographical features of North India
India
are the Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas
Himalayas
, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia
Central Asia

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Levant
Cyprus
Cyprus
Israel
Israel
Iraq
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