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Politics Of Kyrgyzstan
The POLITICS OF KYRGYZSTAN, officially known as the KYRGYZ REPUBLIC takes place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
is head of government . Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in both the government and parliament
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Free Market
One view is that a FREE MARKET is a system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers , in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government , price-setting monopoly, or other authority. Another view considers systems with significant market power , inequality of bargaining power , or information asymmetry to be less than free. It is a result of recognizing a need, followed by the need being met. Some believe a free market contrasts with a regulated market , in which a government intervenes in supply and demand through various methods such as tariffs used to restrict trade and protect the economy. Prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without intervention by government policy
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Feliks Kulov
FELIX SHARSHENBAYEVICH KULOV (Russian : Феликс Шаршенбаевич Кулов; Kyrgyz : Феликс Шаршенбаевич (Шаршенбай уулу) Кулов, Feliks Şarşenbayeviç (Şarşenbay uulu) Kulov; born 29 October 1948) is a Kyrgyz politician who was Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 2005 to 2007, following the Tulip Revolution . He first served from 1 September 2005 until he resigned on 19 December 2006. President Kurmanbek Bakiyev reappointed him acting Prime Minister the same day, but parliamentary opposition meant Bakiyev's attempts to renominate Kulov in January 2007 were unsuccessful and on 29 January the assembly's members approved a replacement. Kulov cofounded and leads Ar-Namys , a political party, and chairs the People\'s Congress , an electoral alliance to which Ar-Namys belongs
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Quorum
A QUORUM is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure , such as a legislature ) necessary to conduct the business of that group. According to Robert\'s Rules of Order Newly Revised , the "requirement for a quorum is protection against totally unrepresentative action in the name of the body by an unduly small number of persons." The term quorum is from a Middle English
Middle English
wording of the commission formerly issued to justices of the peace , derived from Latin
Latin
quorum, "of whom", genitive plural of qui, "who ". As a result, quora as plural of quorum is not a valid Latin
Latin
formation
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Organization For Security And Co-operation In Europe
The ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization . Its mandate includes issues such as arms control , promotion of human rights , freedom of the press , and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna
Vienna
, Austria
Austria
and its institutions. It has its origins in the 1975 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) held in Helsinki
Helsinki
, Finland. The OSCE is concerned with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management , and post-conflict rehabilitation. Its 57 participating states are located in Europe
Europe
, northern and central Asia
Asia
, and North America . The participating states cover much of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere

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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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International Monetary Fund
The INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes , it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system . It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016 , the fund had SDR 477 billion (about $668 billion)
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary systems , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President
President
of the United States )
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Head Of Government
A HEAD OF GOVERNMENT (or CHIEF OF GOVERNMENT) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state , a federated state , or a self-governing colony , (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet , a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state ", (e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country
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Executive Power
The EXECUTIVE is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state . The executive executes and enforces law . In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers , authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative , judicial ) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order . Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations . In the Westminster political system , the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Jalal-Abad, Kyrgyzstan
JALAL-ABAD (also spelled DZHALAL-ABAD, DJALAL-ABAT, JALALABAT; Kyrgyz : Жалал-Aбат, Calal-Abat/Jalal-Abat, جالال-ابات, ) is the administrative and economic centre of Jalal-Abad Region in southwestern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. Its area is 88 square kilometres (34 sq mi), and its resident population was 97,172 in 2009. It is situated at the north-eastern end of the Fergana valley along the Kögart River valley, in the foothills of the Babash Ata mountains, very close to Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
border. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Climate * 4 Economy * 5 Tourism * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links OVERVIEW Jalal-Abad is known for its mineral springs in its surroundings, and the water from the nearby Azreti-Ayup-Paygambar spa was long believed to cure lepers
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Nikolay Tanayev
NIKOLAY TIMOFEYEVICH TANAYEV (Russian: Николай Тимофеевич Танаев; born 5 November 1945 in Mihailovka village, Penzenskaya oblast , Soviet Union ) served as the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 2002 to 2005, under President Askar Akayev . He is an ethnic Russian. He served as Deputy Prime Minister under Kurmanbek Bakiyev and was made acting PM on 22 May 2002 after Akayev fired Bakiyev. He officially became PM eight days later when the Supreme Council confirmed him. As Prime Minister he survived a motion of no confidence vote on 8 April 2004. The legislature voted 27 to 14 to remove him from office, short of the necessary 30 votes. On 24 March 2005 Tanayev resigned as Prime Minister in the midst of the Tulip Revolution
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Almaz Atambayev
ALMAZBEK SHARSHENOVICH ATAMBAYEV (Kyrgyz : Алмазбек Шаршенович (Шаршен уулу) Атамбаев, Almazbek Şarşenoviç (Şarşen uulu) Atambayev; born 17 September 1956) was the President of Kyrgyzstan from 1 December 2011 to 24 November 2017. He was Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 17 December 2010 to 1 December 2011, and from 29 March 2007 to 28 November 2007. He served as Chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (SDPK) from 30 July 1999 to 23 September 2011. CONTENTS * 1 Personal life * 2 Political career under Akayev and Bakiyev * 3 Presidential candidate * 4 Political career since 2010 * 5 Presidency * 5.1 Inauguration * 5.2 Foreign policy * 6 Awards * 7 References PERSONAL LIFE Atanbayev with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry. Atambayev with Dmitry Medvedev during the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade
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Ballot Stuffing
ELECTORAL FRAUD, ELECTION MANIPULATION, or VOTE RIGGING is illegal interference with the process of an election , whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both. What constitutes electoral fraud varies from country to country. Many kinds of election fraud are outlawed in electoral legislation, but others are in violation of general laws, such as those banning assault , harassment or libel . Although technically the term 'electoral fraud' covers only those acts which are illegal, the term is sometimes used to describe acts which are legal, but considered morally unacceptable, outside the spirit of an election or in violation of the principles of democracy. Show elections , in which there is only one candidate, are sometimes classified as electoral fraud, although they may comply with the law and are presented more as referendums
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Jalalabad
JALALABAD /dʒəˈlæləˌbæd/ (Pashto /Persian : جلال آباد‎‎ Jalālābād), formerly called ADINA PUR (Pashto: آدينه پور‎) as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang , is a city in eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley , Jalalabad
Jalalabad
is the capital of Nangarhar province . It is linked by approximately 155 kilometres (95 mi) of highway with Kabul
Kabul
to the west. Jalalabad
Jalalabad
is the second-largest city in eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as well as the centre of its social and business activity because of its border to Pakistan which is the main source of products to all of Afghanistan. Major industries include papermaking, as well as agricultural products including oranges, rice and sugarcane
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Bishkek
BISHKEK (Kyrgyz : Бишкéк; IPA: ; Russian : Бишке́к; IPA: ), formerly PISHPEK and FRUNZE, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek
Bishkek
is also the administrative center of the Chuy Region . The province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan. Post-Soviet research suggests the name derives from a Kyrgyz word for a churn used to make fermented mare's milk (kumis ), the Kyrgyz national drink - although not all sources agree on this. In 1825 Khokand authorities established the fortress of "Pishpek" in order to control local caravan-routes and to collect tribute from Kyrgyz tribes. On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Zimmermann
Zimmermann
destroyed the fortress
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