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Politics Of Belarus
The POLITICS OF BELARUS takes place in a framework of a presidential republic with a bicameral parliament . The President of Belarus
Belarus
is the head of state . Executive power is exercised by the government , at its top sits a prime minister, appointed by the President. Legislative power is de jure vested in the bicameral parliament, the National Assembly , however the president may enact decrees that are executed the same way as laws, for undisputed time. Belarus
Belarus
's declaration of independence on 27 July 1990, did not stem from long-held political aspirations but from reactions to domestic and foreign events. Ukraine 's declaration of independence, in particular, led the leaders of then Belarusian SSR
Belarusian SSR
to realize that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was on the brink of dissolving , which it did
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Decree
A DECREE is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch ), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution). It has the force of law. The particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The executive orders made by the President
President
of the United States , for example, are decrees (although a decree is not exactly an order). In non-legal English usage, however, the term refers to any authoritarian decision. Documents or archives in the format of royal decrees or farming were issued by rulers
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Ukraine
42,418,235 (32nd ) • 2001 CENSUS 48,457,102 • DENSITY 73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th ) GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate • TOTAL $366 billion (50th ) • PER CAPITA $9,125 (114th ) GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate • TOTAL $103 billion (62nd ) • PER CAPITA $2,599 (132nd ) GINI (2015) 25.5 low · 18th HDI (2015) 0.743 high · 84th CURRENCY Ukrainian hryvnia (UAH ) TIME ZONE EET (UTC +2 ) • SUMMER (DST ) EEST (UTC +3) DRIVES ON THE right CALLING CODE +380 ISO 3166 CODE UA INTERNET TLD * .ua * .укр * An independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December. THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS CYRILLIC TEXT
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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Dissolution Of The Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was dissolved on December 26, 1991. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS), although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do so at all. On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev , the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, resigned, declared his office extinct, and handed over its powers – including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes – to Russian President Boris Yeltsin
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De Jure
In law and government, DE JURE (/deɪ ˈdʒʊrɪ/ ; Latin: de iure, "in law") describes practices that are legally recognized by official laws. In contrast, de facto ("in fact" or "in practice") describes situations that are generally known to exist in reality, even if not legally authorized. The terms are often used to contrast different scenarios, for example, "I know that, de jure, this is supposed to be a parking lot, but now that the flood has left four feet of water here, it’s a de facto swimming pool". EXAMPLESIt is possible to have multiple simultaneous conflicting (de jure) legalities, possibly none of which is in force (de facto). After seizing power in 1526, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi made his brother, Umar Din , the lawful (de jure) Sultan
Sultan
of Adal . Ahmad, however, was in practice (de facto) the actual Sultan, and his brother was a figurehead
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Legislative Power
A LEGISLATURE is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city . Legislatures form important parts of most governments ; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation . Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators . In a democracy , legislators are most commonly popularly elected , although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber
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Bicameralism
A BICAMERAL legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies , chambers or houses. BICAMERALISM is distinguished from unicameralism , in which all of the members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures which have three or more separate assemblies, chambers or houses. As of 2015, somewhat less than half of the world's national legislatures are bicameral. Often, the members of the two chambers are elected or selected using different methods, which vary from country to country. This can often lead to the two chambers having very different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation often requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature. When this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism
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Parliament
In modern politics and history, a PARLIAMENT is a legislative , elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate , making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. Although some restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems , it is also commonly used to describe the legislature in presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament ), even where it is not in the official name. Historically, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies, e.g. mediaeval parlements
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary systems , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President
President
of the United States )
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Executive Power
The EXECUTIVE is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state . The executive executes and enforces law . In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers , authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative , judicial ) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order . Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations . In the Westminster political system , the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Stanislav Shushkevich
STANISLAU STANISLAVAVICH SHUSHKEVICH (Belarusian : Станісла́ў Станісла́вавіч Шушке́віч, Łacinka : Stanisłaŭ Stanisłavavič Šuškievič; Russian : Станисла́в Станисла́вович Шушке́вич; born December 15, 1934 in Minsk ) is a Belarusian politician and scientist . From September 28, 1991 to January 26, 1994 he was the first leader and head of state of independent Belarus after the dissolution of the Soviet Union (Chairman of the Supreme Soviet - also chairman of Parliament). He supported free market and democratic reforms and played a key role in the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States . As a scientist, he is a Corresponding Member of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences , Doctor in Physics and Mathematics, recipient of various state awards, professor, and the author and originator of textbooks and over 150 articles and 50 inventions
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Western World
The WESTERN WORLD, or simply THE WEST, is a term usually referring to various nations, depending on the context , most often including at least part of Europe
Europe
. There are many accepted definitions based on commonalities. The Western world
Western world
is also known as THE OCCIDENT (from Latin
Latin
: occidens "sunset, West", as contrasted with Orient
Orient
). The concept of the Western part of the Earth has its roots in Greco-Roman world in Europe
Europe
, Judaism
Judaism
and the advent of Christianity in Ancient Israel
Ancient Israel

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Stanislau Shushkevich
STANISLAU STANISLAVAVICH SHUSHKEVICH (Belarusian : Станісла́ў Станісла́вавіч Шушке́віч, Łacinka : Stanisłaŭ Stanisłavavič Šuškievič; Russian : Станисла́в Станисла́вович Шушке́вич; born December 15, 1934 in Minsk ) is a Belarusian politician and scientist . From September 28, 1991 to January 26, 1994 he was the first leader and head of state of independent Belarus after the dissolution of the Soviet Union (Chairman of the Supreme Soviet - also chairman of Parliament). He supported free market and democratic reforms and played a key role in the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States . As a scientist, he is a Corresponding Member of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences , Doctor in Physics and Mathematics, recipient of various state awards, professor, and the author and originator of textbooks and over 150 articles and 50 inventions
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Supreme Soviet
The SUPREME SOVIET (Russian : Верховный Совет, Verkhóvnyj Sovét, English: literally "Supreme Council") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. These soviets were modeled after the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, established in 1938, and were nearly identical. Soviet-approved delegates to the Supreme Soviets were periodically elected in unopposed elections. The first free or semi-free elections took place during perestroika in late 1980s. The soviets were largely rubber-stamp institutions, approving decisions handed to them by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
or of each SSR
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List Of Members Of The Belarusian Parliament, 1990–1995
Supreme Soviet of BSSR of 12th convocation (1990–1995) was the first parliament in history of independent Belarus
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