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Politics Of Belarus
The politics of Belarus
Belarus
takes place in a framework of a presidential republic with a bicameral parliament. The President of Belarus
Belarus
is the head of state. Executive power is exercised by the government, at its top sits a prime minister, appointed by the President. Legislative power is de jure vested in the bicameral parliament, the National Assembly, however the president may enact decrees that are executed the same way as laws, for undisputed time
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Decree
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution). It has the force of law. The particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The executive orders made by the President
President
of the United States, for example, are decrees (although a decree is not exactly an order)
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Presidential System
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state, which is called president. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment. The title "president" has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President
President
of the Continental Congress in the early United States, prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government is elected to power through the legislative
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Bicameralism
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism
Bicameralism
is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. As of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures are bicameral.[1] Often, the members of the two chambers are elected or selected by different methods, which vary from country to country. This can often lead to the two chambers having very different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation often requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature. When this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism
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Parliament
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, and is commonly used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament), even where it is not in the official name. Historically, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies, e.g
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Head Of State
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.[1] Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of the Commonwealth Realms).[2] In countries where the head of state is also
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Executive Power
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order. Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations. In the Westminster political system, the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Legislative Power
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators
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De Jure
In law and government, de jure (/deɪ ˈdʒʊərɪ/ or /dɪ ˈdʒʊərɪ/; Latin: de iure, lit. 'in law' Latin pronunciation: [deː juːre]) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.[1] In contrast, de facto ("in fact" or "in practice") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised.[2] The terms are often used to contrast different scenarios: for a colloquial example, "I know that, de jure, this is supposed to be a parking lot, but now that the flood has left four feet of water here, it's a de facto swimming pool".[3] Examples[edit] It is possible to have multiple simultaneous conflicting (de jure) legalities, possibly none of which is in force (de facto). After seizing power in 1526, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
made his brother, Umar Din, the lawful (de jure) Sultan
Sultan
of Adal
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Ukraine
42,418,235 [4] (32nd)• 2001 census48,457,102[3]• Density73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate• Total$366 billion[5] (50th)• Per capita$8,656[5] (114th)GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate• Total$104 billion[5] (62nd)• Per capita$2,459[5] (132nd)Gini (2015)  25.5[6] low · 18thHDI (2015)  0.743[7] high · 84thCurrency Ukrainian hryvnia
Ukrainian hryvnia
(UAH)Time zone EET (UTC+2[8])• Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)Drives on the rightCalling code +380 ISO 3166 code UA Internet
Internet
TLD.ua .укрAn independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.This article contains Cyrillic text
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Smalensk
Smolensk (Russian: Смоленск, IPA: [smɐˈlʲɛnsk] ( listen)) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, 360 kilometers (220 mi) west-southwest of Moscow. Population: 326,861 (2010 Census);[5] 325,137 (2002 Census);[10] 341,483 (1989 Census).[11] The walled city in the center of Smolensk (along with the outskirts) was destroyed several times throughout its long history because it was on the invasion routes of both Napoleon and Hitler
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USSR
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Dissolution Of The Soviet Union
The dissolution of the Soviet Union[a] occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.[1] The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS), although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do so at all. On the previous day, 25 December 1991, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, resigned, declared his office extinct, and handed over its powers – including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes – to Russian President Boris Yeltsin
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Stanislav Shushkevich
Stanislau Stanislavavich Shushkevich (Belarusian: Станісла́ў Станісла́вавіч Шушке́віч, Łacinka: Stanisłaŭ Stanisłavavič Šuškievič; Russian: Станисла́в Станисла́вович Шушке́вич; born December 15, 1934 in Minsk) is a Belarusian politician and scientist. From September 28, 1991 to January 26, 1994 he was the first leader and head of state of independent Belarus
Belarus
after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
( Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
- also chairman of Parliament)
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