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Political Appointments In The United States
According to the United States Office of Government Ethics, a political appointee is "any employee who is appointed by the President, the Vice President, or agency head". As of 2016, an incoming administration needs to appoint around 4,000 new employees, of which about 1,200 require Senate approval.[1][2]Contents1 Types 2 Ethics restrictions 3 History 4 Issues 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTypes[edit] There are four basic types of political appointments:Presidential Appointments with Senate Confirmation (PAS): These positions require a congressional hearing and a confirmation vote of the full Senate under the Appointments Clause
Appointments Clause
of the United States Constitution
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United States Office Of Government Ethics
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.[1] In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority (tyranny). While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations.[2] Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny
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Democratic-Republican
The Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party
was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison
James Madison
between 1791 and 1793 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party
Federalist Party
run by Alexander Hamilton, who was secretary of the treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.[5] From 1801 to 1825, the new party controlled the presidency and Congress as well as most states during the First Party System. It began in 1791 as one faction in Congress and included many politicians who had been opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves "Republicans" after their ideology, republicanism. They distrusted the Federalist commitment to republicanism
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Meritocracy
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin
Latin
mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος kratos "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement.[1] Advancement in such a system is based on performance, as measured through examination or demonstrated achievement
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Government Accountability Office
The Government Accountability
Accountability
Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.[2] It is the supreme audit institution of the federal government of the United States.Contents1 History 2 Reports2.1 Financial Statements of the U.S. government 2.2 U.S. Public Debt 2.3 Quinquennial Strategic Plan3 GAO and Technology Assessment 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The GAO was established as the General Accounting Office by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921. The act required the head of the GAO to "investigate, at the seat of government or elsewhere, all matters relating to the receipt, disbursement, and application of public funds, and shall make to the President ... and to Congress ..
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United States Department Of Homeland Security
The United States
United States
Department of Homeland Security
Department of Homeland Security
(DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States
United States
federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries. Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security, immigration and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and management.[3] It was created in response to the September 11 attacks, and is the youngest U.S
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United States Department Of Justice
The United States
United States
Department of Justice
Justice
(DOJ), also known as the Justice
Justice
Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
administration. In its early years, the DOJ vigorously prosecuted Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
members. The Department of Justice
Justice
administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration
Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA)
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Patronage System
In politics and government, a spoils system (also known as a patronage system) is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government civil service jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a merit system, where offices are awarded on the basis of some measure of merit, independent of political activity. The term was used particularly in politics of the United States, where the federal government operated on a spoils system until the Pendleton Act was passed in 1883 due to a civil service reform movement. Thereafter the spoils system was largely replaced by a nonpartisan merit at the federal level of the United States. The term was derived from the phrase "to the victor belongs the spoils" by New York Senator William L
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William L. Marcy
William Learned Marcy (December 12, 1786 – July 4, 1857) was an American lawyer, politician, and judge who served as U.S. Senator, Governor of New York, U.S. Secretary of War and U.S. Secretary of State. In the latter office, he negotiated the Gadsden Purchase, the last major acquisition of land in the continental United States. Born in Southbridge, Massachusetts, Marcy established a legal practice in Troy, New York
Troy, New York
after graduating from Brown University. He fought in the War of 1812, serving as a captain of volunteers. Politically, he aligned with the Bucktail faction of the Democratic-Republican Party and became a leading member of the Albany Regency. As the Democratic-Republicans fractured in the 1820s, he became a member of the Democratic Party. Between 1821 and 1831, he successively served as Adjutant General of New York, New York State Comptroller, and as an associate justice of the New York Supreme Court
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Jackson Democrats
Jacksonian democracy was a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States that espoused greater democracy for the common man as that term was then defined. Originating with President Andrew Jackson and his supporters, it became the nation's dominant political worldview for a generation. This era, called the Jacksonian Era (or Second Party System) by historians and political scientists, lasted roughly from Jackson's 1828 election as president until slavery became the dominant issue after 1848 and the American Civil War dramatically reshaped American politics. It emerged when the long-dominant Democratic-Republican Party became factionalized during the early-to-mid 1820s
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United States Presidential Election, 1828
John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams Democratic-RepublicanElected President Andrew Jackson DemocraticThe United States
United States
presidential election of 1828 was the 11th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, October 31, to Tuesday, December 2, 1828. It featured a re-match of the 1824 election, as incumbent President John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
of the National Republican Party faced Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
of the nascent Democratic Party. Unlike in 1824, Jackson defeated Adams, marking the start of Democratic dominance in federal politics. Adams was the second president to lose re-election, following his father, John Adams. Jackson had won a plurality of the electoral and popular vote in the 1824 election, but had lost the contingent election that was held in the House of Representatives
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Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress. As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man"[1] against a "corrupt aristocracy"[2] and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards. He served briefly in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property later known as the Hermitage, and became a wealthy, slaveowning planter
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Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States, serving under John Adams
John Adams
from 1797 to 1801. A proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from Great Britain and form a new nation, he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level. He was a land owner and farmer. Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry, born and educated in colonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Mary and briefly practiced law, at times defending slaves seeking their freedom
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Federalist Party (United States)
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration Party until the 3rd United States Congress, was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to 1816, though its remnants lasted into the 1820s. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain as well as opposition to revolutionary France. The party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican
Democratic-Republican
opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party
Federalist Party
came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies. These supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, which was committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government
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Competitive Service
The competitive service is a part of the United States federal government civil service. Applicants for jobs in the competitive civil service must compete with other applicants in open competition under the merit system administered by the Office of Personnel Management. According to U.S. Code Title 5 §2102,[1] The "competitive service" consists of—all civil service positions in the executive branch, except—positions which are specifically excepted from the competitive service by or under statute; positions to which appointments are made by nomination for confirmation by the United States Senate, unless the Senate otherwise directs; and positions in the Senior Executive Service;Notably, the procedures for firing and demoting a member of the competitive service are considerable in order to protect the employment rights of the member, yet to provide the employer (the US government) a fair and incremental method to manage employees
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United States Congress
535 voting members100 senators 435 representatives6 non-voting membersSenate political groups     Republican (51)      Democratic (47)      Independent (2) (caucusing with Democrats)House of Representatives political groups     Republican (238)      Democratic (193)      Vacant (4)ElectionsSenate last electionNovember 8, 2016House of Representatives last electionNovember 8, 2016Meeting place United States
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