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Polish Population Transfers (1944–1946)
The Polish population transfers in 1944–46 from the eastern half of prewar Poland (also known as the expulsions of Poles
Poles
from the Kresy macroregion),[1] refer to the forced migrations of Poles
Poles
towards the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II. Similar policy, enforced by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
between 1939 and 1941, targeted ethnic Poles
Poles
residing in the Soviet zone of occupation in the aftermath of the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland. The second wave of expulsions resulted from the retaking of Poland by the Red Army
Red Army
during the Soviet counter-offensive and subsequent territorial shift ratified by the Allies. The postwar population transfers targeting Polish nationals were part of an official Soviet policy which affected over a million Polish citizens removed in stages from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union
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Curzon Line
The history of the Curzon
Curzon
Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council
Supreme War Council
as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union. The proposal was put forward by British Foreign Secretary George Curzon,[1] to serve as a diplomatic basis for the future border agreement, and in that form, it never materialized because the war went on.[2] The line became a major geopolitical factor during World War II, when Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
invaded eastern Poland
Poland
and split its territory along the Curzon
Curzon
Line with Adolf Hitler
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Romanian Prisoners Of War In The Soviet Union
By the end of World War II
World War II
the number of Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union was significant, about 140,000 of them having been taken prisoner even after August 23, 1944, the date when Romania switched its alliance from the Axis Powers
Axis Powers
to the Allies. These prisoners of war worked in various labor camps. Some were originally from Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina[citation needed], which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940, some were from Romania
Romania
proper. For example, 6,730 Romanians worked in the Spassky camp of Karlag, in Karaganda Oblast, Kazakh SSR,[1] in Vorkuta, in Norilsk, and in other places.[citation needed] Spassky camp nr. 99 was established in July 1941, and was the largest POW camp in the region
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Operation Osen
Operation Osen ("Fall"; Russian: Операция «Осень», Lithuanian: Operacija „Ruduo“) was a mass deportation carried out by the Ministry of State Security (MGB) in the territory of the Lithuanian SSR
Lithuanian SSR
in the autumn of 1951. During the operation, more than 5,000 families (over 20,000 people) were transported to remote regions of the Soviet Union. It was the last large deportation in the series of Soviet deportations from Lithuania
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Operation Priboi
Operation Priboi
Operation Priboi
("Coastal Surf") was the code name for the Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states
Baltic states
on 25–28 March 1949. The action is also known as the March deportation by Baltic historians. More than 90,000 Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians, labeled as enemies of the people, were deported to forced settlements in inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union. Over 70% of the deportees were women, and children under the age of 16. Portrayed as a "dekulakization" campaign, the operation was intended to facilitate the forced collectivisation and to eliminate the support base for the armed resistance of the Forest Brothers
Forest Brothers
against the Soviet occupation.[1] The deportation fulfilled its purposes: by the end of 1949, 93% and 80% of the farms were collectivized in Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia
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Operation Vistula
Operation Vistula
Operation Vistula
(Polish: Akcja "Wisła") was a codename for the 1947 forced resettlement of Ukrainian minority including Boykos
Boykos
and Lemkos from the south-eastern provinces of post-war Poland, to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country. The action was carried out by the Soviet-installed Polish communist authorities with the aim of removing material support and assistance to the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.[2][3] The Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
continued its guerilla activities until 1947 in both Subcarpathian and Lublin Voivodeships with no hope for any peaceful resolution
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Virgin Lands Campaign
The Virgin Lands Campaign
Virgin Lands Campaign
(Russian: Освое́ние целины́, Osvoyeniye tseliny; Kazakh: Tyn' i'gery') was Nikita Khrushchev’s 1953 plan to dramatically boost the Soviet Union’s agricultural production in order to alleviate the food shortages plaguing the Soviet populace.Contents1 History 2 Yearly Virgin Land performance2.1 1954 2.2 1955 2.3 1956 2.4 1957 2.5 1958 2.6 1959 2.7 1960 2.8 1961–19633 Major challenges3.1 Poor living conditions and manpower shortages 3.2 Machinery and repair shop shortages 3.3 Climate 3.4 Inadequate grain storage facilities4 Commemoration 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] In September 1953 a Central Committee group – composed of Khrushchev, two aides, two Pravda
Pravda
editors, and one agricultural specialist – met to determine the severity of the agricultural crisis in the Soviet Union
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POW Labor In The Soviet Union
Systematic POW labor in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
is associated primarily with the outcomes of World War II
World War II
and covers the period of 1939-1956, from the official formation of the first POW camps, to the repatriation of the last POWs, from the Kwantung Army. This form of forced labor was handled by the Chief Directorate for Prisoners of War and Internees Affairs (Главное управление по делам военнопленных и интернированных, ГУПВИ, transliterated as GUPVI) of the NKVD, established in 1939 (initially as the "Directorate for Prisoners' Affairs", управление по делам военнопленных) according to the NKVD
NKVD
Order no. 0308 "On the Organization of POW Camps" to handle Polish POWs after the Soviet Invasion of Poland
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GUPVI
The Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees[note 1] (Russian: Главное управление по делам военнопленных и интернированных НКВД/МВД СССР, ГУПВИ, tr. GUPVI, GUPVI NKVD
NKVD
SSSR/ MVD
MVD
SSSR) was a department of NKVD
NKVD
(later MVD) in charge of handling of foreign civilian internees and POW
POW
in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during and in the aftermath of World War II (1939–1953). It was established within NKVD
NKVD
under the name "Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees (UPVI) in September 1939 after the Soviet invasion of Poland
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Japanese Prisoners Of War In The Soviet Union
By the end of World War II
World War II
there were from 560,000 to 760,000 Japanese personnel in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Mongolia
Mongolia
interned to work in labor camps as POWs.[1] Of them, it is estimated that between 60,000-347,000 died in captivity.[2][3][4][5] The majority of the approximately 3.5 million Japanese armed forces outside Japan were disarmed by the United States and Kuomintang China and repatriated in 1946
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Forced Labor Of Germans In The Soviet Union
Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was considered by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to be part of German war reparations for the damage inflicted by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
on the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during World War II. German civilians in Eastern Europe were deported to the USSR after World War II
World War II
as forced laborers. Ethnic Germans living in the USSR were deported during World War II
World War II
and conscripted for forced labor. German prisoners of war were also used as a source of forced labor during and after the war by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Western Allies. The use of German labor as reparations was proposed by the Soviet government starting in 1943, and the issue was raised at the Yalta Conference by the Soviets
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Forced Labor Of Hungarians In The Soviet Union
The topic of forced labor of Hungarians in the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II
World War II
was not researched until the fall of Communism and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. While exact numbers are not known, it is estimated that up to 600,000 Hungarians were captured altogether, including an estimated 200,000 civilians. An estimated 200,000 citizens perished.[1] It was part of a larger system of the usage of foreign forced labor in the Soviet Union. In addition, an uncertain number of Hungarians were deported from Transylvania
Transylvania
to the Soviet Union in the context of the Romania-Hungary Transylvanian dispute. In 1944, many Hungarians were accused by Romanians of being "partisans" and transferred to the Soviet administration
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Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland
Poland
between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the Republic
Republic
of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany, the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland
Poland
also shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia
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Nazi–Soviet Population Transfers
The Nazi–Soviet population transfers
Nazi–Soviet population transfers
were population transfers between 1939 and 1941 of ethnic Germans (actual) and ethnic East Slavs (planned) in an agreement according to the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty between Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union.Contents1 Conception 2 Legal basis 3 Population transfers 1939–1944 4 References 5 SourcesConception[edit] One of Adolf Hitler's main goals during his rule was to unite all German-speaking people into one territory.[1] There were hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans living outside the borders of Germany, mostly in Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
with the largest numbers being Germans from Russia
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Macroregion
A macroregion is a geopolitical subdivision that encompasses several traditionally or politically defined regions. The meaning may vary, with the common denominator being cultural, economical, historical or social similarity within a macroregion
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Forced Migration
Forced displacement
Forced displacement
or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion. Someone who has experienced forced displacement is a "forced immigrant", a "displaced person" (DP), rarely also a "displacee", or if it is within the same country, an internally displaced person (IDP). In some cases the forced immigrant can also become a refugee, as that term has a specific legal definition. A specific form of forced displacement is population transfer, which is a coherent policy to move unwanted persons, for example, as an attempt at ethnic cleansing. Another form is deportation. Forced displacement
Forced displacement
has accompanied persecution, as well as war, throughout human history but has only become a topic of serious study and discussion relatively recently
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