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Police Services Of The Empire Of Japan
The Police
Police
System (警察制度, Keisatsu Seidō) of the Empire of Japan
Japan
comprised numerous police services, in many cases with overlapping jurisdictions.Contents1 History and background 2 Service weapons 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory and background[edit] During the Tokugawa bakufu
Tokugawa bakufu
(1603–1867), police functions were based on a combination of appointed town magistrates of samurai status, who served simultaneously as chiefs of police, prosecutors and judges. The magistrates were assisted by a professional police force with samurai status officers, and deputized jittemochi commoners with powers of arrest. The citizenry was organized into gonin-gumi (Five-family associations), the forerunner of the tonarigumi, whose members were collectively responsible for the actions and activities of any one of their members
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Tokyo Metropolitan Police
Coordinates: 35°40′37.3″N 139°45′8.3″E / 35.677028°N 139.752306°E / 35.677028; 139.752306 Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Police Department 警視庁 KeishichōAsahikageThe headquarters building of the Keishicho stands beyond the historic Ministry of Justice headquartersAgency overviewFormed 1874Legal personality Governmental: Government agencyJurisdictional structureLegal jurisdiction TokyoGoverning body
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Second Sino-Japanese War
Chinese Nationalists (including regional warlords):1,700,000 (1937)[1] 2,600,000 (1939)[2] 5,700,000 (1945)[3] Chinese Communists:166,700 (1938)[4] 488,744 (1940)[5] 1,200,000 (1945)[6] Japanese:600,000 (1937)[7] 1,015,000 (1939)[8] 1,124,900 (1945)[9] (excluding Burma campaign
Burma campaign
and Manchuria) Puppet states and collaborators: 900,000 (1945)[10]Casualties and lossesChinese Nationalists:Official ROC data:1,320,000 killed 1,797,000 wounded 120,000 miss
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Socialism
Socialism
Socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership
Social ownership
may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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Pacifism
Pacifism
Pacifism
is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud (1864–1921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress
Universal Peace Congress
in Glasgow
Glasgow
in 1901.[1] A related term is ahimsa (to do no harm), which is a core philosophy in Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
in his late works, particularly in The Kingdom of God Is Within You. Mohandas Gandhi (1869–1948) propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement
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Counter-espionage
Counterintelligence
Counterintelligence
refers to information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons or international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document
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MI5
The Security Service, also MI5
MI5
(Military Intelligence, Section 5),[3] is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence
Defence Intelligence
(DI). MI5
MI5
is directed by the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), and the service is bound by the Security Service Act 1989
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Great Britain
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world.[5][note 1] In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan.[7][8] The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago.[9] The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and constitutes most of its territory.[10] Most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island
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Imperial Japanese Army
The Imperial Japanese Army
Army
(IJA; 大日本帝國陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; " Army
Army
of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army
Army
General Staff Office and the Ministry of War, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army
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Tokubetsu Keisatsutai
The Tokkeitai (特警隊, short for 特別警察隊 Tokubetsu Keisatsutai, " Special
Special
Police Corps", or Naval Secret Police) was the Imperial Japanese Navy's military police, equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Army's Kempeitai. It was also the smallest military police service.[citation needed] The original Tokkeitai was known as the General Affairs Section and concerned itself with police and personnel work within the Navy: personnel, discipline and records. It took a more active role, partly to keep the Kempeitai
Kempeitai
and the Army from meddling in Navy affairs. Smaller and more low-key than its rival, it was no less brutal. It was especially active in the areas of the South Pacific
Pacific
and the Naval Control Area and was as pervasive as the Kempeitai
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Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy
Navy
(IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍  Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun (help·info) or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, " Navy
Navy
of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II. The Japan
Japan
Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed after the dissolution of the IJN.[1] The Japanese Navy
Navy
was the third largest navy in the world by 1920, behind the Royal Navy
Navy
and the United States Navy
Navy
(USN).[2] It was supported by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
for aircraft and airstrike operation from the fleet
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Manchurian Incident
Japanese victoryJapanese invasion of ManchuriaBelligerents Republic of China Empire of JapanCommanders and leaders Zhang Xueliang Ma Zhanshan Feng Zhanhai Shigeru Honjō Jirō MinamiStrength160,000 30,000–66,000v t eSecond Sino-Japanese WarMajor engagements in boldBegun in 1931–37Mukden ManchuriaJiangqiao Nenjiang Bridge Jinzhou Harbin Shanghai
Shanghai
(1932) Pacification of Manchukuo Rehe Great Wall Inner MongoliaSuiyuanBegun in 1937–39Marco Polo Bridge Beiping–Tianjin Chahar Shanghai
Shanghai
(1937)Sihang WarehouseBeiping–Hankou Railway Tianjin–Pukou Railway TaiyuanPingxingguan XinkouNanjing XuzhouTaierzhuangN.-E. HenanLanfengAmoy Chongqing WuhanWanjialingCantonHainanNanchang Suixian–ZaoyangSwatow1st Changsha S. GuangxiKunlun PassWinter OffensiveWest Suiyuan WuyuanBegun in 1940–42Zaoyang–Yichang Hundred Regiments N. Vietnam C. Hubei S.Henan W
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Korea
Korea
Korea
(/kəˈriːə/) is a historical region in East Asia; since 1945, it has been divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Korea
Korea
(officially the "Republic of Korea"). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea
Korea
is bordered by China
China
to the northwest and Russia
Russia
to the northeast. It is separated from Japan
Japan
to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan
Japan
(East Sea). Korea
Korea
emerged as a singular political entity in 676 AD, after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which were unified as Unified Silla
Unified Silla
to the south and Balhae
Balhae
to the north
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Anarchism
Anarchism
Anarchism
is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions
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Kwantung Leased Territory
The Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory
was a Russian-leased territory (1898–1905), then a Japanese-leased territory (1905–1945) in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
(Japanese: 遼東半島) in the Republic of China
China
that existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the territorial concessions that the Chinese government under the Qing Dynasty was compelled to award to foreign countries during the second half of the 19th century
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Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan
(/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of China
China
(ROC), is a state in East Asia.[15][16][17] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War
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