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Pliocene
The Pliocene
Pliocene
( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/;[2][3] also Pleiocene[4]) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58[5] million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations entirely within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene
Pliocene
also included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene.[6] As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain
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Neanderthal
Homo
Homo
mousteriensis[1] Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis[2] Neanderthals
Neanderthals
(UK: /niˈændərˌtɑːl/, also US: /neɪ-, -ˈɑːn-, -ˌtɔːl, -ˌθɔːl/),[3][4] more rarely known as Neandertals,[a] were archaic humans that became extinct about 40,000 years ago.[8][9][10][11][12][13] They seem to have appeared in Europe and later expanded into Southwest, Central and Northern Asia. There, they left hundreds of stone tool assemblages. Almost all of those younger than 160,000 years are of the so-called Mousterian
Mousterian
techno-complex, which is characterised by tools made out of stone flakes.[14] Neanderthals
Neanderthals
are considered either a distinct species, Homo neanderthalensis,[15][16][17] or more rarely[18] a subspecies of Homo sapiens (H. s
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Orrorin
Orrorin
Orrorin
tugenensis is a postulated early species of Homininae, estimated at 6.1 to 5.7 million years (Ma) and discovered in 2000. It is not confirmed how Orrorin
Orrorin
is related to modern humans
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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface[1], with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Naming 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy. These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
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Ouranopithecus
†Ouranopithecus macedoniensis †Ouranopithecus turkae Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
is an extinct genus of Eurasian great ape represented by two species, Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
macedoniensis, a late Miocene (9.6–8.7 mya) hominoid from Greece[1] and Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
turkae, also from the late Miocene
Miocene
(8.7–7.4 mya) of Turkey.[2]Contents1 Systematics 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksSystematics[edit] Based on O. macedoniensis's dental and facial anatomy, it has been suggested that Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
was actually a dryopithecine. However, it is probably more closely related to the Ponginae.[3][4] Some researchers consider O. macedoniensis to be the last common ancestor of apes and humans,[5] and a forerunner to australopithecines and humans,[6] although this is very controversial and not widely accepted
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Hominidae
The Hominidae
Hominidae
(/hɒˈmɪnɪdiː/), whose members are known as great apes[note 1] or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo
Homo
erectus.[1] Several revisions in classifying the great apes have caused the use of the term "hominid" to vary over time. Its original meaning referred only to humans (Homo) and their closest extinct relatives. That restrictive meaning has now been largely assumed by the term "hominin", which comprises all members of the human clade after the split from the chimpanzees (Pan). The current, 21st-century meaning of "hominid" includes all the great apes including humans
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Nakalipithecus
Nakalipithecus
Nakalipithecus
nakayamai is a prehistoric ape species that lived in modern-day Kenya
Kenya
early in the Late Miocene, 10 million years ago (mya).[1][2] It is the type species of the new genus Nakalipithecus. The name of the genus refers to Nakali, the region where the fossil was found, while the species is named after Japanese geologist Katsuhiro Nakayama who died while working on the project.[3]Contents1 Provenance 2 Anatomy and relationships 3 Significance 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References 7 External linksProvenance[edit] This ape was described from a fossil jawbone and eleven isolated teeth excavated in 2005 by a team of Japanese and Kenyan researchers in mud flow deposits in the Nakali region of northern Kenya's Rift Valley Province,[1][2] giving the genus its scientific name which means "Nakali ape"
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Mollusc
See text.Diversity[1]85,000 recognized living species. Cornu aspersum
Cornu aspersum
(formerly Helix aspersa) – a common land snail Mollusca
Mollusca
is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusks[Note 1] (/ˈmɒləsk/). Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized.[2] The number of fossil species is estimated between 60,000 and 100,000 additional species.[3] Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. They are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is typically divided into 9 or 10 taxonomic classes, of which two are entirely extinct
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Henry Watson Fowler
Henry Watson Fowler
Henry Watson Fowler
(/ˈfaʊlə/; 10 March 1858 – 26 December 1933) was an English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on the usage of the English language. He is notable for both A Dictionary of Modern English Usage and his work on the Concise Oxford Dictionary, and was described by The Times
The Times
as "a lexicographical genius". After an Oxford education, Fowler was a schoolmaster until his middle age and then worked in London as a freelance writer and journalist, but was not very successful. In partnership with his brother Francis, and beginning in 1906, he began publishing seminal grammar, style and lexicography books
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Absolute Dating
Absolute dating
Absolute dating
is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty of accuracy.[1][2] Absolute dating provides a numerical age or range in contrast with relative dating which places events in order without any measure of the age between events. In archaeology, absolute dating is usually based on the physical, chemical, and life properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans and by historical associations with materials with known dates (coins and written history)
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Age (geology)
A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts. A succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale is a stage. See also[edit]List of geochronologic namesReferences[edit]^ Cohen, K.M.; Finney, S.; Gibbard, P.L
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Philology
Philology
Philology
is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[1] Philology
Philology
is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage, especially British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics.[2][3] Classical philology
Classical philology
studies classical languages. Classical philology principally originated from the Library of Pergamum
Library of Pergamum
and the Library of Alexandria[4] around the fourth century BCE, continued by Greeks and Romans throughout the Roman/Byzantine Empire
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Before Present
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use 1 January 1950 as the commencement date of the age scale, reflecting the origin of practical radiocarbon dating in the 1950s
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Human Skeletal Changes Due To Bipedalism
The evolution of human bipedalism, which began in primates about four million years ago,[1] or as early as seven million years ago with Sahelanthropus,[2] has led to morphological alterations to the human skeleton including changes to the arrangement and size of the bones of the foot, hip size and shape, knee size, leg length, and the shape and orientation of the vertebral column. The evolutionary factors that produced these changes have been the subject of several theories.[3]Contents1 Energy efficiency 2 Foot 3 Knee 4 Limbs 5 Hip 6 Vertebral column 7 Skull 8 Significance 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksEnergy efficiency[edit] Human
Human
walking is about 75% less costly than both quadrupedal and bipedal walking in chimpanzees
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Anatomically Modern Human
In paleoanthropology, anatomically modern humans[1] (AMH) is a term used to distinguish Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
as having an anatomy consistent with the range of phenotypes seen in contemporary humans from varieties of extinct archaic humans. Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
evolved from "archaic" or "robust" predecessors (Homo heidelbergensis, or a related offshoot from Homo
Homo
erectus) around 315,000 years ago
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Gorilla–human Last Common Ancestor
†Pierolapithecus †Udabnopithecus †Dryopithecini Gorillini Hominini Homininae
Homininae
is a subfamily of Hominidae. It includes two tribes, with their extant as well as extinct species: the Hominini
Hominini
tribe (with the genus Homo
Homo
including modern humans, Australopithecina, comprising at least three extinct (or, fossil) genera and the genus Pan including chimpanzees and bonobos), and the Gorillini tribe (gorillas). It comprises all hominids that arose after orangutans (subfamily Ponginae) split from the line of great apes. The Homininae
Homininae
cladogram has three main branches, which lead to gorillas (through the tribe Gorillini), and to humans and chimpanzees via the tribe Hominini
Hominini
and subtribes Hominina
Hominina
and Panina (see the evolutionary tree below)
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