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Pleomorphism (cytology)
Pleomorphism is a term used in histology and cytopathology to describe variability in the size, shape and staining of cells and/or their nuclei. It is a feature characteristic of malignant neoplasms, and dysplasia. Certain benign cell types may have pleomorphism, e.g. neuroendocrine cells, Arias-Stella reaction. See also[edit]Anaplasia Cytopathology Giant cell carcinoma of the lung Nuclear atypiaThis article related to pathology is a stub
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Benign
Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run
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Pathology
Pathology
Pathology
(from the Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" whence the English word "path" is derived by transliteration, and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant component of the causal study of pathogens and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. Hence, 'the study of paths', by which disease comes. The term pathology itself may be used broadly to refer to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices (including plant pathology and veterinary pathology), or more narrowly to describe work within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease—mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples
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Histology
Histology[help 1] also microanatomy [1] is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy. It is commonly studied using a light microscope or electron microscope, the specimen having been sectioned, stained, and mounted on a microscope slide. Histological studies may be conducted using tissue culture, where live animal cells are isolated and maintained in an artificial environment for various research projects. The ability to visualize or differentially identify microscopic structures is frequently enhanced through the use of staining. Histology
Histology
is an essential tool of biology and medicine. Histopathology, the microscopic study of diseased tissue, is an important tool in anatomical pathology, since accurate diagnosis of cancer and other diseases usually requires histopathological examination of samples
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Cytopathology
Cytopathology
Cytopathology
(from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow";[1] πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. The discipline was founded by George Nicolas Papanicolaou
George Nicolas Papanicolaou
in 1928. Cytopathology
Cytopathology
is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments, in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues. Cytopathology
Cytopathology
is commonly used to investigate diseases involving a wide range of body sites, often to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, but also in the diagnosis of some infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions
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Staining
Staining
Staining
is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image. Stains and dyes are frequently used in biology and medicine to highlight structures in biological tissues for viewing, often with the aid of different microscopes. Stains may be used to define and examine bulk tissues (highlighting, for example, muscle fibers or connective tissue), cell populations (classifying different blood cells, for instance), or organelles within individual cells. In biochemistry it involves adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. Staining
Staining
and fluorescent tagging can serve similar purposes. Biological staining is also used to mark cells in flow cytometry, and to flag proteins or nucleic acids in gel electrophoresis. Simple staining is staining with only one stain/dye
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Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
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Cell Nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin
Latin
nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others have many. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA
DNA
molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell
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Malignant Neoplasms
Cancer
Cancer
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.[8] Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.[1] While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes.[1] Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.[8]
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Micrograph
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. Micrography
Micrography
is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure
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Neuroendocrine Cell
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood. In this way they bring about an integration between the nervous system and the endocrine system, a process known as neuroendocrine integration. An example of a neuroendocrine cell is a cell of the adrenal medulla (innermost part of the adrenal gland), which releases adrenaline to the blood. The adrenal medullary cells are controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. These cells are modified postganglionic neurons. Autonomic nerve fibers lead directly to them from the central nervous system. The adrenal medullary hormones are kept in vesicles much in the same way neurotransmitters are kept in neuronal vesicles
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Arias-Stella Reaction
Arias-Stella reaction, also Arias-Stella phenomenon, is a benign change in the endometrium associated with the presence of chorionic tissue.[1] Arias-Stella reaction is due to progesterone primarily. Cytologically, it looks like a malignancy and, historically, it was diagnosed as endometrial cancer.[1]Contents1 Significance 2 Diagnosis 3 History 4 See also 5 ReferencesSignificance[edit] It is significant only because it can be misdiagnosed as a cancer
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Giant Cell Carcinoma Of The Lung
Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated lung cancer, traditionally classified within the non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). The characteristic feature of this highly lethal malignancy is the distinctive light microscopic appearance of its extremely large cells, which are bizarre and highly pleomorphic, and which often contain more than one huge, misshapen, pleomorphic nucleus ("syncytia"), which result from cell fusion. Although it is common in the lung cancer literature to refer to histologically mixed tumors containing significant numbers of malignant giant cells as "giant-cell carcinomas", technically a diagnosis of "giant-cell carcinoma" should be limited strictly to neoplasms containing only malignant giant cells (i.e
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Nuclear Atypia
Nuclear atypia refers to abnormal appearance of cell nuclei. It is a term used in cytopathology and histopathology. Atypical nuclei are often pleomorphic. Nuclear atypia can be seen in reactive changes, pre-neoplastic changes and malignancy. Severe nuclear atypia is, in most cases, considered an indicator of malignancy. See also[edit]Arias-Stella reaction NC ratio Nuclear pleomorphismThis article related to pathology is a stub
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Pleomorphism (microbiology)
In microbiology, pleomorphism (from greek πλέω- more, and -μορφή form) is the ability of some micro-organisms to alter their shape or size in response to environmental conditions. Pleomorphism has been observed in some members of the Deinococcaceae family.[1] The modern definition of pleomorphism in the context of bacteriology is based on variation of size or shape of the cell, rather than a change of shape as previously believed.[1] Bacteria[edit] In the first decades of the 20th century, the term "pleomorphism" was used to refer to the idea that bacteria changed shape dramatically or existed in a number of extreme morphological forms. This claim was controversial among microbiologists of the time, and split them into two schools: the monomorphists, who opposed the claim, and the pleomorphists such as Antoine Béchamp, Ernst Almquist, Günther Enderlein, Albert Calmette[2], Gastons Naessens, Royal Raymond Rife and Lyda Mattman
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