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Plateau
In geology and physical geography a plateau ( /pləˈtoʊ/, /plæˈtoʊ/ or /ˈplætoʊ/; plural plateaus or plateaux[1][2]),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, and erosion by water and glaciers
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South Pole
Coordinates: 90°S 180°E / 90°S 180°E / -90; 180The Geographic South Pole. (The flag used on the flagpole is interchangeable.)Image taken by NASA
NASA
showing Antarctica
Antarctica
and the South Pole
South Pole
in 2005.South Geographic Pole South Magnetic Pole
South Magnetic Pole
(2007) South Geomagnetic Pole
South Geomagnetic Pole
(2005) South Pole
South Pole
of InaccessibilityThe South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole
South Pole
or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface
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Erosion
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it away to another location[1] (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind (aeolic) erosion, zoogenic erosion, and anthropogenic erosion[2].The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution
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East Antarctica
East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, separated from West Antarctica
Antarctica
by the Transantarctic Mountains. It lies almost entirely within the Eastern Hemisphere and its name has been accepted for more than a century. It is generally higher than West Antarctica
Antarctica
and includes the Gamburtsev Mountain Range in the centre. Apart from small areas of the coast, East Antarctica
Antarctica
is permanently covered by ice. The only terrestrial plant life is lichens, mosses and algae clinging to rocks, and there are a limited range of invertebrates including nematodes, springtails, mites and midges
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Skardu District
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government
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Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit- Baltistan
Baltistan
(Urdu: گلگت بلتستان‬‎), formerly known as the Northern Areas,[10] is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.[1] It borders Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
to the west, the Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to the north, the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
region of China, to the east and northeast, and the Indian-administered state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir to the southeast
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "He h
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Glacier
A glacier (US: /ˈɡleɪʃər/ or UK: /ˈɡlæsiə/) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and Papua New Guinea
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Bogotá
Nickname(s): "La Atenas Suramericana" ("The South American Athens") "Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad " ("Most Noble and Most Loyal City")[1][2]Motto(s): " Bogotá
Bogotá
Mejor Para Todos" ("A Better Bogotá
Bogotá
For All", 2016–2019)BogotáLocation in
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Colombia
Coordinates: 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72 Republic
Republic
of Colombia República de Colombia  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish) "Freedom and Order"Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish) O unfading glory!Location of  Colombia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Bogotá 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067Official languages SpanishaRecognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects
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Hadley Cell
The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a global scale tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the equator, flowing poleward at 10–15 kilometers above the surface, descending in the subtropics, and then returning equatorward near the surface. This circulation creates the trade winds, tropical rain-belts and hurricanes, subtropical deserts and the jet streams. In each hemisphere, there is one primary circulation cell known as a Hadley cell
Hadley cell
and two secondary circulation cells at higher latitudes, between 30° and 60° latitude known as the Ferrel cell, and beyond 60° as the Polar cell
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Lava
Lava
Lava
is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F). The resulting structures after solidification and cooling are also sometimes described as lava. The molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, and some of their satellites, though such material located below the crust is referred to by other terms. A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is commonly shortened to lava
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Extrusion
Extrusion
Extrusion
is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section. The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex cross-sections, and to work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It also forms parts with an excellent surface finish.[1] Drawing is a similar process, which uses the tensile strength of the material to pull it through the die. This limits the amount of change which can be performed in one step, so it is limited to simpler shapes, and multiple stages are usually needed. Drawing is the main way to produce wire. Metal
Metal
bars and tubes are also often drawn. Extrusion
Extrusion
may be continuous (theoretically producing indefinitely long material) or semi-continuous (producing many pieces)
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Magma
Magma
Magma
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids[1] that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals, dissolved gas and sometimes gas bubbles. Magma
Magma
often collects in magma chambers that may feed a volcano or solidify underground to form an intrusion
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Physical Geography
Physical geography
Physical geography
(also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.[1][2][3] Physical geography is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.Contents1 Sub-branches 2 Journals and literature 3 Historical evolution of the discipline 4 Notable physical geographers 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksSub-branches[edit]A natural arch.Physical Geography
Geography
can be divided into several sub-fields, as follows: Geomorphology
Geomorphology
is the field concerned with understanding the surface of the Earth and the processes by which it is shaped, both at the present as well as in the past
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Terrain
Terrain
Terrain
or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface. The term bathymetry is used to describe underwater relief, while hypsometry studies terrain relative to sea level. The Latin word terra (the root of terrain) means "earth." In physical geography, terrain is the lay of the land. This is usually expressed in terms of the elevation, slope, and orientation of terrain features. Terrain
Terrain
affects surface water flow and distribution
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