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Platax Pinnatus
PLATAX PINNATUS, also known as the PINNATE BATFISH, DUSKY BATFISH, SHADED BATFISH, or RED-FACED BATFISH is a fish from the western Pacific
Pacific
that occasionally is kept in marine aquariums . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Importance to humans * 2.1 In the aquarium * 2.2 In the wild * 3 References DESCRIPTIONAs a juvenile it is blackish brown, or black with an orange stripe outlining its entire body. Adults become a dull silver. This fish grows to a maximum size of 45 cm (18 in). IMPORTANCE TO HUMANSIN THE AQUARIUMThe pinnate batfish is occasionally kept in marine aquariums IN THE WILD Platax pinnatus has been observed to significantly reduce algal growths on coral in studies simulating overfishing on the Great Barrier Reef . REFERENCES * ^ Brahic, Catherine (2006-12-18). "Batfish may come to Great Barrier Reef\'s rescue". New Scientist. Reed Business Information Ltd. Retrieved 2007-04-06
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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10th Edition Of Systema Naturae
The 10TH EDITION OF SYSTEMA NATURAE is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature . In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals , something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
. CONTENTS * 1 Starting point * 2 Revisions * 3 Animals * 3.1 Mammalia * 3.2 Aves * 3.3 Amphibia * 3.4 Pisces * 3.5 Insecta * 3.6 Vermes * 4 Plants * 5 References * 6 External links STARTING POINTBefore 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae. The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands
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Pacific
The PACIFIC OCEAN is the largest and deepest of Earth
Earth
's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica
Antarctica
) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean
World Ocean
—and, in turn, the hydrosphere —covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined
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Marine Aquarium
A MARINE AQUARIUM is an aquarium that keeps marine plants and animals in a contained environment. Marine aquaria are further subdivided by hobbyists into fish only (FO), fish only with live rock (FOWLR), and reef aquaria . Fish only tanks often showcase large or aggressive marine fish species and generally rely on mechanical and chemical filtration. FOWLR and reef tanks use live rock , a material composed of coral skeletons harboring beneficial nitrogen waste metabolizing bacteria, as a means of more natural biological filtration. Marine fishkeeping is different from its freshwater counterpart because of the fundamental differences in the constitution of saltwater and the resulting differences in the adaptation of its inhabitants. A stable marine aquarium requires more equipment than freshwater systems, and generally requires more stringent water quality monitoring
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Wikispecies
WIKISPECIES is a wiki -based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation . Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species ; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales
Jimmy Wales
stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is available under the GNU Free Documentation License
GNU Free Documentation License
and CC BY-SA 3.0 . Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to articles on individual species by April 2005
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Conservation Status
The CONSERVATION STATUS of a group of organisms (for instance, a species ) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE, also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the SPECIFIC NAME or SPECIFIC EPITHET – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens . Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
rex is probably the most widely known binomial
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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IUCN Red List
The IUCN
IUCN
RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES (also known as the IUCN
IUCN
RED LIST or RED DATA LIST), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species . The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. The IUCN
IUCN
Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction
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Animalia
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives . Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion
Cambrian explosion
, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Chordata
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa
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Perciformes
PERCIFORMES, also called the Percomorpha or Acanthopteri, are the most numerous order of vertebrates , containing about 41% of all bony fish . Perciformes
Perciformes
means "perch -like". They belong to the class of ray-finned fish , and comprise over 10,000 species found in almost all aquatic ecosystems . The order contains about 160 families, which is the most of any order within the vertebrates. It is also the most variably sized order of vertebrates, ranging from the 7-mm (1/4-in) Schindleria brevipinguis to the marlin in the Makaira genus. They first appeared and diversified in the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
. Among the well-known members of this group are cichlids , California sheephead , bluegill , damselfish , snappers , bass , and perch . CHARACTERISTICSThe dorsal and anal fins are divided into anterior spiny and posterior soft-rayed portions, which may be partially or completely separated
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Actinopterygii
ACTINOPTERYGII /ˌæktᵻnˌɒptəˈrɪdʒi.aɪ/ , or the RAY-FINNED FISHES, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes . The ray-finned fishes are so called because their fins are webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines ("rays"), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish). These actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton (e.g., pelvic and pectoral girdles). Numerically, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates , comprising nearly 99% of the over 30,000 species of fish. They are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams
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