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Plastic
Note 1: The use of this term instead of polymer is a source of confusion and thus is not recommended. Note 2: This term is used in polymer engineering for materials often compounded that can be processed by flow.[1] Plastic
Plastic
is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass and often contain other substances
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Chemical Structure
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid
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Bone
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton. Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions. Bone
Bone
tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue, a type of dense connective tissue. It has a honeycomb-like matrix internally, which helps to give the bone rigidity. Bone
Bone
tissue is made up of different types of bone cells. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in the formation and mineralization of bone; osteoclasts are involved in the resorption of bone tissue. Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface
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Synthetic Fiber
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes. They are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve on naturally occurring animal fibers and plant fibers. In general, synthetic fibers are created by extruding fiber-forming materials through spinnerets into air and water, forming a thread. These fibers are called synthetic or artificial fibers. Some fibers (such as the diverse family of rayons) are manufactured from plant-derived cellulose and are thus semisynthetic, whereas others are totally synthetic, being made from crudes and intermediates including petroleum, coal, limestone, air, and water
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Artificial Membrane
An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry. Synthetic membranes have been successfully used for small and large-scale industrial processes since the middle of twentieth century.[1] A wide variety of synthetic membranes is known.[2] They can be produced from organic materials such as polymers and liquids, as well as inorganic materials. The most of commercially utilized synthetic membranes in separation industry are made of polymeric structures. They can be classified based on their surface chemistry, bulk structure, morphology, and production method. The chemical and physical properties of synthetic membranes and separated particles as well as a choice of driving force define a particular membrane separation process. The most commonly used driving forces of a membrane process in industry are pressure and concentration gradients
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Casting
Casting
Casting
is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting
Casting
materials are usually metals or various cold setting materials that cure after mixing two or more components together; examples are epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay. Casting
Casting
is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.[1] Casting
Casting
is a 6000-year-old process
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Nitrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates
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Herman Francis Mark
Francis
Francis
may refer to:Contents1 People 2 Places 3 Other uses 4 See alsoPeople[edit]Pope Francis Francis
Francis
(given name), including a list of people and fictional characters
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Hermann Staudinger
Hermann Staudinger
Hermann Staudinger
(23 March 1881 – 8 September 1965) was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers. For this work he received the 1953 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry. He is also known for his discovery of ketenes and of the Staudinger reaction. Staudinger, together with Leopold Ružička, also elucidated the molecular structures of pyrethrin I and II in the 1920s, enabling the development of pyrethroid insecticides in the 1960s and 1970s.Contents1 Early work 2 The Staudinger reaction 3 Polymer
Polymer
chemistry 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEarly work[edit] Staudinger was born in 1881 in Worms. After receiving his Ph.D
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Nobel Laureate
The Nobel Prizes
Nobel Prizes
(Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics
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Sulfur
Sulfur
Sulfur
is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Sulfur
Sulfur
is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on Earth. Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt
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Repeat Unit
A repeat unit or repeating unit is a part of a polymer whose repetition would produce the complete polymer chain (except for the end-groups) by linking the repeat units together successively along the chain, like the beads of a necklace.[1][2] A repeat unit is sometimes called a mer or mer unit. "Mer" originates from the Greek word "meros," which means part. The word polymer derives its meaning from this, which means "many mers." A repeat unit (or mer), is not to be confused with the term monomer, which refers to the small molecule from which a polymer is synthesized.[3] One of the simplest repeat units is that of the addition polymer polyvinyl chloride, -[CH2-CHCl]n-, whose repeat unit is -[CH2-CHCl]-. In this case the repeat unit has the same atoms as the monomer vinyl chloride CH2=CHCl
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Monomer
A monomer (/ˈmɒnəmər/ MON-ə-mər) (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".[1][2] Large numbers of monomers combine to form polymers in a process called polymerization.Contents1 Classification 2 Synthetic monomers 3 Biopolymers 4 Natural monomers4.1 Amino acids 4.2 Nucleotides 4.3 Glucose
Glucose
and related sugars 4.4 Isoprene5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksClassification[edit] Monomers can be classified in many ways. They can be subdivided into two broad classes, depending on the kind of the polymer that they form. Monomers that participate in condensation polymerization have a different stoichiometry than monomers that participate in addition polymerization:[3]This nylon is formed by condensation polymerization of two monomers, yielding water.Other classifications include:natural vs synthetic monomers, e.g
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Aluminum
Aluminium
Aluminium
or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[5] Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation
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Repeating Unit
A repeat unit or repeating unit is a part of a polymer whose repetition would produce the complete polymer chain (except for the end-groups) by linking the repeat units together successively along the chain, like the beads of a necklace.[1][2] A repeat unit is sometimes called a mer or mer unit. "Mer" originates from the Greek word "meros," which means part. The word polymer derives its meaning from this, which means "many mers." A repeat unit (or mer), is not to be confused with the term monomer, which refers to the small molecule from which a polymer is synthesized.[3] One of the simplest repeat units is that of the addition polymer polyvinyl chloride, -[CH2-CHCl]n-, whose repeat unit is -[CH2-CHCl]-. In this case the repeat unit has the same atoms as the monomer vinyl chloride CH2=CHCl
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