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Plasmodium
Asiamoeba Bennettinia Carinamoeba Giovannolaia Haemamoeba Huffia Lacertamoeba Laverania Novyella Paraplasmodium Plasmodium Sauramoeba Vinckeia Plasmodium
Plasmodium
is a genus of unicellular parasites, many of which cause malaria in their hosts.[1] The genus Plasmodium
Plasmodium
was first described in 1885. It now contains about 200 species, which are spread across the world where both the insect and vertebrate hosts are present. Five species regularly infect humans, while many others infect birds, reptiles, rodents, and various primates.[2] The life-cycles of Plasmodium
Plasmodium
species involve several different stages both in the insect and the vertebrate host. These stages include sporozoites, which are injected by the insect vector into the vertebrate host's blood. Sporozoites infect the host liver, giving rise to merozoites and (in some species) a dormant stage (hypnozoites)
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Diploid
Ploidy
Ploidy
is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes. Somatic cells, tissues and individuals can be described according to the number of sets present (the ploidy level): monoploid (1 set), diploid (2 sets), triploid (3 sets), tetraploid (4 sets), pentaploid (5 sets), hexaploid (6 sets), heptaploid[1] or septaploid[2] (7 sets), etc. The generic term polyploid is used to describe cells with three or more chromosome sets.[3][4] Humans are diploid organisms, carrying two complete sets of chromosomes: one set of 23 chromosomes from their father and one set of 23 chromosomes from their mother. The two sets combined provide a full complement of 46 chromosomes. This total number of chromosomes is called the chromosome number. The zygotic number is defined as the number of chromosomes in zygotic cells
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Hepatocyte
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver. Hepatocytes make up 70-85% of the liver's mass
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Reptile
See text for extinct groups.Global reptile distribution (excluding birds)Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders, historically combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology. Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles (e.g., crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards), the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping or clade (consisting of all descendants of a common ancestor)
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Rodent
Anomaluromorpha Castorimorpha Hystricomorpha
Hystricomorpha
(incl. Caviomorpha) Myomorpha SciuromorphaCombined range of all rodent species (not including introduced populations)Rodents (from Latin
Latin
rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% of all mammal species are rodents; they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica
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Primates
A primate (/ˈpraɪmeɪt/ ( listen) PRY-mayt) is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").[2][3] In taxonomy, primates include two distinct lineages, strepsirrhines and haplorhines.[1] Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging environment. Most primate species remain at least partly arboreal. With the exception of humans, who inhabit every continent,[4] most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia.[5] They range in typical size from Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs only 30 g (1 oz), to the eastern gorilla, weighing over 200 kg (440 lb)
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Vector (epidemiology)
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism;[1][2] most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.[3]Contents1 Arthropods 2 Plants and fungi 3 World Health Organization
World Health Organization
and vector-borne disease 4 Vector-borne zoonotic disease and human activity 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksArthropods[edit]The deer tick, a vector for Lyme disease
Lyme disease
pathogens.Arthropods form a major group of pathogen vectors with mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, lice, fleas, ticks, and mites transmitting a huge number of pathogens. Many such vectors are haematophagous, which feed on blood at some or all stages of their lives. When the insects blood feed, the pathogen enters the blood stream of the host
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Sexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm. Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes of normal cells. They are created by a specialized type of cell division, which only occurs in eukaryotic cells, known as meiosis. The two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. In a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA) joins up so that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information
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Liver
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.[2][3][4] In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones.[4] The liver is an accessory digestive gland that produces bile, an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile
Bile
aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids
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Hematophagy
Hematophagy
Hematophagy
(sometimes spelled haematophagy or hematophagia) is the practice by certain animals of feeding on blood (from the Greek words αἷμα haima "blood" and φάγειν phagein "to eat"). Since blood is a fluid tissue rich in nutritious proteins and lipids that can be taken without great effort, hematophagy has evolved as a preferred form of feeding for many small animals, such as worms and arthropods. Some intestinal nematodes, such as Ancylostomids, feed on blood extracted from the capillaries of the gut, and about 75 percent of all species of leeches (e.g., Hirudo medicinalis), a free-living worm, are hematophagous
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Gamete
A gamete (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry"[1]) is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce. In species that produce two morphologically distinct types of gametes, and in which each individual produces only one type, a female is any individual that produces the larger type of gamete—called an ovum (or egg)—and a male produces the smaller tadpole-like type—called a sperm. In short a gamete is an egg (female gamete) or a sperm (male gamete). This is an example of anisogamy or heterogamy, the condition in which females and males produce gametes of different sizes (this is the case in humans; the human ovum has approximately 100,000 times the volume of a single human sperm cell[2][3]). In contrast, isogamy is the state of gametes from both sexes being the same size and shape, and given arbitrary designators for mating type
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Fertilization
Fertilisation
Fertilisation
or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation,[1] is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.[2] The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction. During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation.Contents1 History 2 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in plants2.1 Bryophytes 2.2 Ferns 2.3 Gymnosperms 2.4 Flowering plants 2.5 Self-Pollination3 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in animals3.1 Internal vs
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Zygote
A zygote (from Greek zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke")[1] is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. The zygote's genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and contains all of the genetic information necessary to form a new individual. In multicellular organisms, the zygote is the earliest developmental stage. In single-celled organisms, the zygote can divide asexually by mitosis to produce identical offspring. Oscar Hertwig
Oscar Hertwig
and Richard Hertwig
Richard Hertwig
made some of the first discoveries on animal zygote formation.Contents1 Fungi 2 Plants 3 Humans 4 In other species 5 In protozoa 6 See also 7 ReferencesFungi[edit] In fungi, the sexual fusion of haploid cells is called karyogamy. The result of karyogamy is the formation of a diploid cell called zygote or zygospore
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Genome
In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA
DNA
(or RNA
RNA
in RNA viruses)
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