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Plainweave
In embroidery , PLAINWEAVE is a technical category of woven base fabrics that are suitable for working certain varieties of embroidery. Plainweave
Plainweave
fabrics have a tight weave and individual threads are not readily visible. Surface embroidery may be performed on plainweave, such as crewel work , goldwork , stumpwork , cutwork , and candlewicking . Embroideries that can be performed on plainweave do not require the crafter to perform stitches at a precise thread count. Most woven fabrics that were not specifically manufactured for the purpose of embroidery qualify as plainweave. Traditionally, linen plainweave is the preferred fabric for crewel embroidery. Other plainweaves suitable for crewel include denim , sailcloth , ticking , and organdy when worked in wool . PLAINWEAVE USESHistoric eighteenth century crewel embroidery preferentially used a linen and cotton twill plainweave because it wore well
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Cotton
COTTON is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae
Malvaceae
. The fiber is almost pure cellulose . Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia
Australia
and Africa. Cotton
Cotton
was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds. The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile
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Twill
TWILL is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs (in contrast with a satin and plain weave). This is done by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads then under two or more warp threads and so on, with a "step," or offset, between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern. Because of this structure, twill generally drapes well
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Wool
WOOL is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids . Wool
Wool
has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped and elastic . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Processing * 2.1 Shearing * 2.2 Scouring * 3 Quality * 4 Fineness and yield * 5 History * 6 Production * 7 Marketing * 7.1 Australia
Australia
* 7.2 Other countries * 8 Yarn
Yarn
* 9 Uses * 10 Carbon footprint * 11 Events * 12 See also * 12.1 Production * 12.2 Processing * 12.3 Refined products * 12.4 Organizations * 12.5 Miscellaneous wool * 13 References * 14 External links CHARACTERISTICS Champion hogget fleece, Walcha Show Wool
Wool
is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin
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Organdy
ORGANDY or ORGANDIE is the sheerest and crispest cotton cloth made. Combed yarns contribute to its appearance. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Process * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources DESCRIPTIONOrgandy is a balanced plain weave . Because of its stiffness and fiber content, it is very prone to wrinkling. Organza is the filament yarn counterpart to organdy. PROCESSIts sheerness and crispness are the result of an acid finish on greige (unbleached or grey/beige) lawn goods. It comes in three types of finishes: "Stiff" is most commonly used, but "Semi stiff" and "Soft" finishes are also available. The latter two finishes are more popular for summer wear and draped apparel whereas the first is more popular for loose apparel and home textiles such as dresses and curtains. SEE ALSO * Organza REFERENCES * ^ Le Van, Marthe (2009). Stitched Jewels: Jewelry That\'s Sewn, Stuffed, Gathered & Frayed, p. 10
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Ticking
TICKING is a cotton or linen textile that is tightly woven for durability and to prevent down feathers from poking through the fabric, and used to cover mattresses and bed pillows . It commonly has a striped design, in muted colors such as brown, grey or blue, and occasionally red or yellow, against a plain, neutral background. Although traditionally used for mattresses and pillows, the material has found other uses, such as serving as a backing for quilts , coverlets , and other bedding . It is sometimes woven with a twill weave. Ticking is no longer restricted to a utility fabric and has found uses in interior decorating styles intending to evoke a homespun or industrial aesthetic. Modern uses for ticking include furniture upholstery, cushion covers, tablecloths, decorative basket liners, and curtains. Occasionally, lighter weight percale cloth is printed with a striped pattern made to resemble ticking fabric, and used to make garments
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Fustât
FUSTAT (Arabic : الفسطاط‎ al-Fusţāţ, Coptic : ⲫⲩⲥⲧⲁⲧⲱⲛ), also FOSTAT, AL FUSTAT, MISR AL-FUSTAT and FUSTAT-MISR, was the first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule. It was built by the Muslim general \'Amr ibn al-\'As immediately after the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, and featured the Mosque of Amr , the first mosque built in Egypt and in all of Africa. The city reached its peak in the 12th century, with a population of approximately 200,000. It was the centre of administrative power in Egypt, until it was ordered burnt in 1168 by its own vizier , Shawar , to keep its wealth out of the hands of the invading Crusaders . The remains of the city were eventually absorbed by nearby Cairo , which had been built to the north of Fustat in 969 when the Fatimids conquered the region and created a new city as a royal enclosure for the Caliph. The area fell into disrepair for hundreds of years and was used as a rubbish dump
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Velvet
VELVET is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile , giving it a distinctive feel. By extension, the word velvety means "smooth like velvet." Velvet
Velvet
can be made from either synthetic or natural fibers. CONTENTS * 1 Construction & composition * 2 History * 3 Entry from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
(1911) * 4 Types * 4.1 Gallery * 5 Fibres * 6 See also * 7 References CONSTRUCTION "> Illustration depicting the manufacture of velvet fabric Velvet
Velvet
is woven on a special loom that weaves two thicknesses of the material at the same time. The two pieces are then cut apart to create the pile effect, and the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Batiste
BATISTE is a fine cloth made from cotton, wool , polyester , or a blend, and the softest of the lightweight opaque fabrics. CONTENTS * 1 History and description * 2 Type * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION Batiste
Batiste
is a balanced plain weave , a fine cloth made from cotton or linen such as cambric . Batiste
Batiste
was often used as a lining fabric for high-quality garments. Batiste
Batiste
is also used for handkerchiefs (cotton batiste) and lingerie (batiste de soie). In 1901 Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language defined batiste as "usual French name for cambric" or "applied in commerce to a fine texture of linen and cotton". "Cambric" is a synonym of the French word batiste, itself attested since 1590
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Dacron
POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins . It may also be referred to by the brand name DACRON; in Britain, TERYLENE; or, in Russia and the former Soviet Union, LAVSAN. The majority of the world's PET production is for synthetic fibres (in excess of 60%), with bottle production accounting for about 30% of global demand. In the context of textile applications, PET is referred to by its common name, polyester , whereas the acronym PET is generally used in relation to packaging
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Muslin
MUSLIN (/ˈmʌslᵻn/ or /ˈmjuːslᵻn/ ) is a cotton fabric of plain weave. It is made in a wide range of weights from delicate sheers to coarse sheeting. It gets its name from the city of Mosul
Mosul
, Iraq
Iraq
, where it may have been first manufactured. Early muslin was handwoven of uncommonly delicate handspun yarn, especially in the region around Dhaka
Dhaka
, Bengal (now Bangladesh
Bangladesh
), where it may have originated from. It was imported into Europe for much of the 17th and early 18th centuries. Fine linen muslin was formerly known as SINDON. In 2013, the traditional art of weaving Jamdani
Jamdani
muslin in Bangladesh was included in the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO
UNESCO

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Sailcloth
SAILCLOTH encompasses a wide variety of materials that span those from natural fibers, such as flax (linen ), hemp or cotton in various forms including canvas , to synthetic fibers , including nylon , polyester , aramids , and carbon fibers
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Elizabeth I Of England
ELIZABETH I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called THE VIRGIN QUEEN, GLORIANA or GOOD QUEEN BESS, the childless Elizabeth was the last monarch of the House of Tudor
House of Tudor
. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII of England
and Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
, his second wife, who was executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII
Henry VIII
was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI of England , ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Roman Catholic Mary , in spite of statute law to the contrary . Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey
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Denim
DENIM is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces a diagonal ribbing that distinguishes it from cotton duck . The most common denim is indigo denim , in which the warp thread is dyed, while the weft thread is left white. As a result of the warp-faced twill weaving, one side of the textile is dominated by the blue warp threads and the other side is dominated by the white weft threads. This causes blue jeans to be white on the inside. The indigo dyeing process, in which the core of the warp threads remains white, creates denim's signature fading characteristics
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