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Plain
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along the bottoms of valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal plains, and as plateaus or uplands.[1] In a valley, a plain is enclosed on two sides but in other cases a plain may be delineated by a complete or partial ring of hills, by mountains or cliffs. Where a geological region contains more than one plain, they may be connected by a pass (sometimes termed a gap). Coastal plains would mostly rise from sea level until they run into elevated features such as mountains or plateaus.[2] Plains are one of the major landforms on earth, where they are present on all continents, and would cover more than one-third of the world’s land area.[3] Plains may have been formed from flowing lava, deposited by water, ice, wind, or formed by erosion by these agents from hills and mountains
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Sediment
Sediment
Sediment
is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if buried, may eventually become sandstone and siltstone (sedimentary rocks). Sediments are most often transported by water (fluvial processes), but also wind (aeolian processes) and glaciers. Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition, though sediment also often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian transport and deposition
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Mountain Pass
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before recorded history, and have played a key role in trade, war, and migration. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass. The highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas
Himalayas
on the border between India
India
and Tibet.Contents1 Overview 2 Synonyms 3 Around the world 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit]Idealised mountain pass represented as the green line; the saddle point is in red.Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle, or col (also sometimes a notch, the low point in a ridge)
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Livestock
Livestock
Livestock
are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats.[1] In recent years, some organizations have also raised livestock to promote the survival of rare breeds. The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of these animals, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal
Animal
husbandry practices have varied widely across cultures and time periods. Originally, livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have largely shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming"
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Rainforest
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between 250 and 450 centimetres (98 and 177 in),[1] and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests
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Isle Of Wight
The Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
(/waɪt/; also referred to informally as IoW or The Island)[4] is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, about 2 miles (3.2 km) off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent. The island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields, downland and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House
Osborne House
at East Cowes. It has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, and Britain's space rockets
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Polar Climate
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers. Every month in a polar climate has an average temperature of less than 10 °C (50 °F). Regions with polar climate cover more than 20% of the Earth. These regions are usually far from the equator, and when this is the case, the sun shines for long hours in the summer, and for many fewer hours in the winter. A polar climate results in treeless tundra, glaciers, or a permanent or semi-permanent layer of ice. It has cool summers and very cold winters.Contents1 Subtypes 2 Locations2.1 Arctic 2.2 Antarctica3 Quantifying polar climate 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksSubtypes[edit] Main articles: Ice
Ice
cap climate and Tundra
Tundra
climate There are two types of polar climate: ET, or tundra climate; and EF, or ice cap climate
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Tropical Climate
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical
Tropical
climates are frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year.Contents1 Sub types1.1 Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate 1.2 Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate 1.3 Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate 1.4 Exceptions2 Intertropical Convergence Zone 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksSub types[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Pediplain
In geology and geomorphology a pediplain (from the Latin pes, genitive case pedis, meaning "foot") is an extensive plain formed by the coalescence of pediments.[1] The processes through which pediplains forms is known as pediplanation.[2] The concepts of pediplain and pediplanation were first developed by geologist Lester Charles King in his 1942 book South African Scenery. The concept gained notoriety as it was juxtaposed to peneplanation.[3][A] The coalesced pediments of the pediplains may form a series of very gentle concave slopes.[B] Pediplains main difference to W. M. Davis’ peneplains is in the history and processes behind, and less so in the final shape
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Subtropical
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator. Subtropical climates are often characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost
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Temperate
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth
Earth
occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions.[1] These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small. In the Koppen climate classification, a climate is termed "temperate" when the coldest month has a mean temperature above -3 C (26.6 F) but below 18 C (64.4 F)
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Gap (landform)
A gap is a land form that is a low point or opening between hills or mountains or in a ridge or mountain range. It may be called a col, notch, pass, saddle, water gap, or wind gap, and geomorphologically are most often carved by water erosion from a freshet, stream or a river.[1] Gaps created by freshets are often, if not normally, devoid of water through much of the year, their streams being dependent upon the meltwaters of a snow pack. Gaps sourced by small springs will generally have a small stream excepting perhaps during the most arid parts of the year. Water gaps of necessity often cut entirely through a barrier range and riverine gaps may create canyons such as the riverine gaps of the Danube River, Lehigh River
River
Gorge, the Colorado River's Grand Canyon and the Genesee River
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Highland
The term highland or uplands is used to denote any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) tends to refer to ranges of hills,[1] typically up to 500–600 m. Highland
Highland
(or highlands) is usually reserved for ranges of low mountains.Contents1 Highlands internationally 2 Other planets 3 See also 4 ReferencesHighlands internationally[edit] Probably the most known highlands in the anglosphere are the Scottish Highlands in northern Scotland, the mountainous region north and west of the Highland
Highland
Boundary Fault. The Highland
Highland
council area is a local government area in the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
and Britain's largest local government area. Many countries have areas that are officially or unofficially referred to as highlands
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Scroll Plain
A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a roll, is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.[1]Contents1 Structure 2 History of scroll use 3 Rolls 4 Scotland 5 Replacement by the codex 6 Recent discovery 7 Modern technology 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksStructure[edit] A scroll is usually divided up into pages, which are sometimes separate sheets of papyrus or parchment glued together at the edges, or may be marked divisions of a continuous roll of writing material. The scroll is usually unrolled so that one page is exposed at a time, for writing or reading, with the remaining pages rolled up to the left and right of the visible page
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Meander
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse. It is produced by a stream or river swinging from side to side as it flows across its floodplain or shifts its channel within a valley. A meander is produced by a stream or river as it erodes the sediments comprising an outer, concave bank (cut bank) and deposits this and other sediment downstream on an inner, convex bank which is typically a point bar. The result of sediments being eroded from the outside concave bank and their deposition on an inside convex bank is the formation of a sinuous course as a channel migrates back and forth across the down-valley axis of a floodplain. The zone within which a meandering stream shifts its channel across either its floodplain or valley floor from time to time is known as a meander belt. It typically ranges from 15 to 18 times the width of the channel
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