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Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital
The Hôpital universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière (French: [opital ynivɛʁsitɛʁ pitje salpɛtʁijɛʁ]) is a celebrated teaching hospital in the 13th arrondissement of Paris.[1] Part of the Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
Paris
and a teaching hospital of Sorbonne University, it is one of Europe's largest hospitals.[2]Contents1 History 2 Buildings2.1 Hospital Chapel 2.2 Philippe Pinel
Philippe Pinel
monument3 Notable doctors 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The Salpêtrière was originally a gunpowder factory (saltpetre being a constituent of gunpowder), but in 1656 at the direction of Louis XIV, it was converted into a hospice for the poor women of Paris. It served as a prison for prostitutes, and a holding place for women who were learning disabled, mentally ill or epileptic, as well as poor; it was also notable for its population of rats and a bloated and unresponsive bureaucracy
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Health System
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. Implicitly, nations must design and develop health systems in accordance with their needs and resources, although common elements in virtually all health systems are primary healthcare and public health measures.[1] In some countries, health system planning is distributed among market participants. In others, there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, charities, religious organizations, or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve
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Mécanisme De La Physionomie Humaine
Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine. ou, Analyse électro-physiologique de l'expression des passions des arts plastiques. is a monograph on the muscles of facial expression, researched and written by Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne, (1806–75). It first appeared as an abstract published in Archives générales de médecine,[1] in 1862 and was then published in three formats: two octavo editions and one quarto edition
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Erotomania
Erotomania
Erotomania
is a type of delusional disorder where the affected person believes that another person is in love with him or her. This belief is usually applied to someone with higher status or a famous person, but can also be applied to a complete stranger. Erotomanic delusions often occur in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, but can also occur during a manic episode in the context of bipolar I disorder.[1] During an erotomanic delusion, the patient believes that a secret admirer is declaring his or her affection for the patient, often by special glances, signals, telepathy, or messages through the media. Usually the patient then returns the perceived affection by means of letters, phone calls, gifts, and visits to the unwitting recipient
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Encyclopédie
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts),[1] better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France
France
between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations. It had many writers, known as the Encyclopédistes. It was edited by Denis Diderot and, until 1759, co-edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert. The Encyclopédie
Encyclopédie
is most famous for representing the thought of the Enlightenment
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Tony Robert-Fleury
Tony Robert-Fleury
Tony Robert-Fleury
(1 September, 1837 – 8 December, 1911)[1] was a French painter, known primarily for historical scenes. He was also a prominent art teacher, with many famous artists among his students.Contents1 Biography 2 Gallery 3 Pupils 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] He was born just outside Paris, and studied under his father Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury
and under Paul Delaroche
Paul Delaroche
and Léon Cogniet at the École des Beaux-Arts
École des Beaux-Arts
(School of Fine Arts) in Paris. His first painting at the Salon de Paris, in 1866, was a large historical canvas, titled Varsovie, Scene de l'Insurrection Polonaise, recalling the events of April 8, 1861 in Warsaw, when Russian troops quenched riots by force
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Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.[6][3][4] The altered mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania, depending on its severity, or whether symptoms of psychosis are present.[3] During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy, or irritable.[3] Individuals often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences.[4] The need for sleep is usually reduced during manic phases.[4] During periods of depression, there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, and poor eye contact with others.[3] The risk of suicide among those with the illness is high at greater than 6 percent over 20 years, while self-harm occurs in 30–40 percent.[3] Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorders and substance use disorder are commonly associated.[3] The causes are not clearly understood, but both environmental and genetic facto
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Folie à Deux
Folie à deux (/fɒˈli ə ˈduː/; French pronunciation: ​[fɔli a dø]; French for "madness of two"), or shared psychosis,[1] is a psychiatric syndrome in which symptoms of a delusional belief and sometimes hallucinations[2][3] are transmitted from one individual to another.[4] The same syndrome shared by more than two people may be called folie à trois, folie à quatre, folie en famille ("family madness"), or even folie à plusieurs ("madness of several"). Recent psychiatric classifications refer to the syndrome as shared psychotic disorder (DSM-IV – 297.3) and induced delusional disorder (F24) in the ICD-10, although the research literature largely uses the original name. This disorder is not in the current DSM (DSM-5)
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Duchenne De Boulogne
Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer
Boulogne-sur-Mer
– September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology. The era of modern neurology developed from Duchenne's understanding of neural pathways and his diagnostic innovations including deep tissue biopsy, nerve conduction tests (NCS), and clinical photography
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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
(DMD) is a severe type of muscular dystrophy.[2] The symptom of muscle weakness usually begins around the age of four in boys and worsens quickly.[1] Typically muscle loss occurs first in the upper legs and pelvis followed by those of the upper arms.[2] This can result in trouble standing up.[2] Most are unable to walk by the age of 12.[1] Affected muscles may look larger due to increased fat content.[2]
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Charles Darwin
Tertiary education: University of Edinburgh Medical School
University of Edinburgh Medical School
(medicine, no degree) Christ's College, Cambridge
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Idiocy
An idiot, dolt, dullard or (archaically) mome is a person perceived to be lacking intelligence, or someone who acts in a self-defeating or significantly counterproductive way. Along with the similar terms moron, imbecile, and cretin, the word archaically referred to the intellectually disabled, but have all since gained specialized meanings in modern times. An idiot is said to be idiotic, and to suffer from idiocy.Contents1 Etymology 2 Disability and early classification and nomenclature 3 Regional law3.1 United States 3.2 United Kingdom4 In literature 5 References 6 External linksEtymology Idiot
Idiot
is a word derived from the Greek ἰδιώτης, idiōtēs ("person lacking professional skill", "a private citizen", "individual"), from ἴδιος, idios ("private", "one's own").[1] In ancient Greece, people who were not capable of engaging in the public sphere were considered "idiotes", in contrast to the public citizen, or "polites"[2]
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Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
is Charles Darwin's third major work of evolutionary theory, following On The Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man
The Descent of Man
(1871). Originally intended as a section of The Descent of Man, it was published separately in 1872 and concerns the biological aspects of emotional life. In this book, Darwin sets out some early ideas about behavioural genetics, and explores the origins of such human characteristics as the lifting of the eyebrows in moments of surprise and the mental confusion which typically accompanies blushing
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Syphilis
Syphilis
Syphilis
is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum
Treponema pallidum
subspecies pallidum.[2] The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages it presents (prim
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Epilepsy
Epilepsy
Epilepsy
is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.[10][11] Epileptic seizures
Epileptic seizures
are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking.[1] These episodes can result in physica
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Stroke
Stroke
Stroke
is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.[4] There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding.[4] They result in part of the brain not functioning properly.[4] Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side.[1][2] Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred.[2] If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a trans
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