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Pinsk
PINSK (Belarusian : Пі́нск, Pinsk; Russian : Пи́нск, Pinsk; Ukrainian : Пи́нськ, Pyns'k; Polish : Pińsk; Yiddish /Hebrew : Pinsk
Pinsk
,פינסק‎‎, Lithuanian : Pinskas) is a city in Belarus
Belarus
, in the Polesia region, traversed by the river Pina , at the confluence of the Pina and Pripyat rivers. The region was known as the Marsh of Pinsk
Pinsk
. It lies south-west of Minsk
Minsk
. The population is about 138,202. The historic city has a restored city centre full of two-story buildings dating from the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The city centre has become an active place for youth of all ages with summer theme parks and a newly built association football stadium that houses the town's football team, FC Volna Pinsk
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Minsk
MINSK (Belarusian : Мінск, pronounced ; Russian : Минск, ), is the capital and largest city of Belarus
Belarus
, on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers. It is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS). As the national capital, Minsk
Minsk
has a special administrative status in Belarus
Belarus
and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region (voblast ) and Minsk
Minsk
raion (district). In 2013, it had a population of 2,002,600. The earliest historical references to Minsk
Minsk
date to the 11th century (1067), when it was noted as a provincial city within the Principality of Polotsk
Polotsk
. The settlement developed on the rivers. In 1242, Minsk became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania

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Association Football
ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL, more commonly known as FOOTBALL or SOCCER, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball . It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers (and then only when within their penalty area ). Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may also use any part of their body except the hands and the arms. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition
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Poles
1,000,000 OTHER COUNTRIES UNITED KINGDOM 630,000 ARGENTINA 500,000 BELARUS 295,000 RUSSIA 273,000 AUSTRALIA 216,056 LITHUANIA 212,800 UKRAINE 144,130 IRELAND 122,585 NORWAY 120,000 ITALY 109,018 SWEDEN 75,323 BELGIUM 70,600 SPAIN 70,606 AUSTRIA 69,898 NETHERLANDS 60,000 LATVIA 44,783 DENMARK 37,876 KAZAKHSTAN 34,057 SOUTH AFRICA 30,000 CZECH REPUBLIC 20,305 PARAGUAY 16,748 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 14,500 GREECE 14,145 ICELAND 10,540 VENEZUELA 9,000 PERU 7,000 HUNGARY 5,730 MOLDOVA 4,174 ROMANIA 3,671 SLOVAKIA 3,084 FINLAND 3,000 NEW ZEALAND 2,166 ESTONIA 1,747 LANGUAGE
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Janusz Radziwiłł (1612–1655)
PRINCE JANUSZ RADZIWIłł, also known as JANUSZ THE SECOND or JANUSZ THE YOUNGER (Lithuanian : Jonušas Radvila, 2 December 1612 – 31 December 1655) was a noble and magnate in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth . Throughout his life he occupied a number of posts in the state administration, including that of Court Chamberlain of Lithuania (from 1633), Field Hetman of Lithuania (from 1646) and Grand Hetman
Hetman
of Lithuania (from 1654). He was also a voivode of Vilna Voivodeship (from 1653), as well as a starost of Samogitia
Samogitia
, Kamieniec , Kazimierz and Sejwy . He was a protector of the Protestant religion in Lithuania and sponsor of many Protestant schools and churches
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Lithuanian Language
LITHUANIAN (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. There are about 2.9 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. Lithuanian is a Baltic language , related to Latvian . It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet . Lithuanian is often said to be the most conservative living Indo-European language , retaining many features of Proto-Indo-European now lost in other Indo-European languages
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Charles XII Of Sweden
CHARLES XII, also CARL (Swedish : Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. ), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate- Zweibrücken , a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach . Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder . He assumed power, after a seven-month caretaker government , at the age of fifteen. In 1700, a triple alliance of Denmark–Norway , Saxony –Poland– Lithuania and Russia launched a threefold attack on the Swedish protectorate of Swedish Holstein-Gottorp and provinces of Livonia and Ingria , aiming to draw advantage as Sweden was unaligned and ruled by a young and inexperienced king, thus initiating the Great Northern War
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Cossacks
COSSACKS (Ukrainian: козаки́, kozaky, Russian: казаки́, kazaki, Belarusian: казакi, Polish: kozacy) are a group of predominantly East Slavic -speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia
Russia
. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper , Don , Terek , and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Russia
Russia
and Ukraine. The origins of the first Cossacks
Cossacks
are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin
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John II Casimir
JOHN II CASIMIR (Polish : Jan II Kazimierz Waza; German: Johann II. Kasimir Wasa; Lithuanian : Jonas Kazimieras Vaza; 22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia , and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660. In Poland, he is known and commonly referred as Jan Kazimierz. His parents were Sigismund III Vasa (1566–1632) and Constance of Austria (1588–1631). His older brother, and predecessor on the throne, was Władysław IV Vasa . In 1638 he embarked at Genoa for Spain to negotiate a league with Philip IV against France, but suffering shipwreck on the coast of Provence, he was seized and by order of Cardinal Richelieu imprisoned at Vincennes , where he remained two years, and was only released on promise of his brother the king of Poland never to wage war against France
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Magdeburg Rights
MAGDEBURG RIGHTS (German : Magdeburger Recht; also MAGDEBURG LAW) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–73) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler. Named after the German city of Magdeburg
Magdeburg
, these town charters were perhaps the most important set of medieval laws in Central Europe thus far. They became the basis for the German town laws developed during many centuries in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Even more importantly, adopted and modified by numerous monarchs including the rulers of Bohemia, Hungary, and Poland, the laws were a milestone in urbanization of the entire region and prompted the development of thousands of villages and cities
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Vaišvilkas
VAIšELGA or VAIšVILKAS (also spelled as Vojszalak, Vojšalk, Vaišalgas,; killed on December 9, 1268) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1264–1267). He was son of Mindaugas , the first and only King of Lithuania . Nothing is known about the youth of Vaišvilkas as he entered historical sources only in 1254 when he made a treaty, in the name of his father King Mindaugas, with Daniel of Halych-Volhynia . In the treaty, Halych-Volhynia transfers Black Ruthenia with center in Navahrudak to Lithuania. To solidify the treaty, Daniel's son Shvarn was married to Vaišvilkas' sister. Vaišvilkas was appointed as duke of some of these lands. After Vaišvilkas was baptized in a Greek Orthodox rite, he was drawn to religious life so much that he transferred his title and lands to Roman Danylovich , son of Daniel of Halych. He founded a monastery traditionally identified with Lavrashev Monastery on the bank on the Neman River and entered it as a monk
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Navahrudak
NAVAHRUDAK (Belarusian : Навагрудак), more commonly known by its Russian name NOVOGRUDOK (Новогрудок) (Lithuanian : Naugardukas; Polish : Nowogródek; Yiddish
Yiddish
: נאָווהאַרדאָק‎ Novhardok) is a city in the Grodno Region of Belarus
Belarus
. In the 14th century it was an episcopal see of the Metropolitanate of Lithuania . It is a possible first capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
, with Trakai
Trakai
also noted as a possibility. It was later part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
, the Russian Empire and eventually Poland
Poland
until the Soviet invasion of Poland (1939) when the USSR
USSR
annexed the area to the Byelorussian SSR
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Crown Of The Polish Kingdom
The CROWN OF THE KINGDOM OF POLAND (Polish : Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin
Latin
: Corona Regni Poloniae), or simply THE CROWN, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland
King of Poland
, including Poland proper
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Bohdan Khmelnytsky
ZYNOVIY BOHDAN KHMELNYTSKY ( Ruthenian language : Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Ukrainian: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький, translit. Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Polish: Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; c. 1595 – 6 August 1657) was a Ukrainian Hetman
Hetman
of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(now part of Ukraine
Ukraine
). He led an uprising against the Commonwealth and its magnates (1648–1654) that resulted in the creation of a state led by the Cossacks
Cossacks
of Ukraine
Ukraine
. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia

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Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH, formally the CROWN OF THE KINGDOM OF POLAND AND THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA, after 1791 the COMMONWEALTH OF POLAND, was a dualistic state , a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania
Lithuania
. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. At its peak in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth spanned some 450,000 square miles (1,200,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‬, Ivrit ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel
Israel
, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants
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