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Pierre De Fermat
Pierre de Fermat
Pierre de Fermat
(French: [pjɛːʁ də fɛʁma]; (Between 31 October and 6 December 1607[1] – 12 January 1665) was a French lawyer[3] at the Parlement
Parlement
of Toulouse, France, and a mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of differential calculus, then unknown, and his research into number theory. He made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics
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Ordinate
In mathematics, the abscissa (/æbˈsɪs.ə/; plural abscissae or abscissæ or abscissas) and the ordinate are respectively the first and second coordinate of a point in a coordinate system. The abscissa of a point is the signed measure of its projection on the primary axis, whose absolute value is the distance between the projection and the origin of the axis, and whose sign is given by the location on the projection relative to the origin (before: negative; after: positive). The ordinate of a point is the signed measure of its projection on the secondary axis, whose absolute value is the distance between the projection and the origin of the axis, and whose sign is given by the location on the projection relative to the origin (before: negative; after: positive). Usually these are the horizontal and vertical coordinates of a point in a two-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system
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Law
Law
Law
is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.[2] Law
Law
is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein
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Collège De Navarre
The College
College
of Navarre (French: Collège de Navarre) was one of the colleges of the historic University of Paris, rivaling the Sorbonne and renowned for its library. History[edit] It was founded by Queen Joan I of Navarre
Joan I of Navarre
in 1305, who provided for three departments, the arts with 20 students, philosophy with 30 and theology with 20 students.[1] The queen bequeathed part of her fine hôtel de Navarre in rue Saint André des Arts, together with lands generated rents of 2000 livres p.a. in her counties of Champagne and Brie
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Capitole De Toulouse
The Capitole (French for "capitol") is the heart of the municipal administration of the French city of Toulouse
Toulouse
and its city hall. It is supposedly on the spot that St Saturninus was martyred. The bishop of Toulouse
Toulouse
is said to have been tied to the legs of a bull, which was driven down the steps of the town's capitol, causing his head to be bashed open.[1] The Capitouls
Capitouls
(governing magistrates) of Toulouse
Toulouse
embarked on the construction of the original building in 1190 to provide a seat for the government of a province growing in wealth and influence. The name "Capitole" referred not only to the Roman Capitol but also to the capitulum, which was the chapter of the governing magistrates
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Kingdom Of France
La Parisienne (1830–1848) "The Parisian"The Kingdom of France
France
in 1789.Capital Paris
Paris
(987–1682) Versailles (1682–1789)
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Bordeaux
www.bordeaux.frUNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial name Bordeaux, Port of the MoonCriteria Cultural: ii, ivReference 1256Inscription 2007 (31st Session)Area 1,731 haBuffer zone 11,974 ha1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(French pronunciation: ​[bɔʁdo]; Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne
Garonne
River in the Gironde
Gironde
department in southwestern France. The municipality (commune) of Bordeaux
Bordeaux
proper has a population of 246,586 (2014)
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Mathematician
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics
Mathematics
is concerned with numbers, data, quantity, structure, space, models, and change.Contents1 History 2 Required education 3 Activities3.1 Applied mathematics 3.2 Abstract mathematics 3.3 Mathematics
Mathematics
teaching 3.4 Consulting4 Occupations 5 Quotations about mathematicians 6 Prizes in mathematics 7 Mathematical autobiographies 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksHistory This section is on the history of mathematicians
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Apollonius Of Perga
Apollonius of Perga
Perga
(Greek: Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Περγαῖος; Latin: Apollonius Pergaeus; late 3rd – early 2nd centuries BC) was a Greek geometer and astronomer known for his theories on the topic of conic sections. Beginning from the theories of Euclid
Euclid
and Archimedes
Archimedes
on the topic, he brought them to the state they were in just before the invention of analytic geometry. His definitions of the terms ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola are the ones in use today. Apollonius worked on many other topics, including astronomy. Most of the work has not survived except in fragmentary references in other authors
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Parlement
A parlement (French pronunciation: [paʁləmɑ̃] ( listen)), in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court. In 1789, France had 13 parlements, the most important of which was the Parlement
Parlement
of Paris. While the English word parliament derives from this French term, parlements were not legislative bodies. They consisted of a dozen or more appellate judges, or about 1,100 judges nationwide.[citation needed] They were the court of final appeal of the judicial system, and typically wielded much power over a wide range of subject matter, particularly taxation. Laws and edicts issued by the Crown were not official in their respective jurisdictions until the parlements gave their assent by publishing them
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French People
118,000[17][18]Other countries Mexico 60,000[19] Algeria 32,000[10] China 31,000[10] Luxembourg 31,000[10][20] Hong Kong 25,000[21] Netherlands 23,000[10] Senegal 20,000[10] Mauritius 15,000[22] Monaco 10,000[23] Sweden 9,005[24] Austria8,246[25]LanguagesFrench and other languages (Langues d'oïl Occitan Auvergnat Corsican Catalan Franco-Provençal German (Alsatian & Franconian) Dutch (French Flemish) Breton Basque)ReligionPredominantly Roman Catholicism[26] Minority : Protestantism Judaism IslamRelated ethnic groupsCeltic peoples Romance peoples Germanic peoplesThe French (French: Français) are an ethnic group[27][28][29] and nation who are identified with the country of France
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Jean De Beaugrand
Jean de Beaugrand
Jean de Beaugrand
(1584 – 22 December 1640) was the foremost French lineographer of the seventeenth century. Though born in Mulhouse, de Beaugrand moved to Paris
Paris
in 1581. He also worked as a mathematician and published works on geostatics. He is credited with naming the cycloid. He lived and worked in Paris
Paris
as an artist until his death in 1640. References[edit]D Diderot, Encyclopédie, First edition, Book 4, 596. George Hanton, French Lineography, Gregory Kline Books, New York, 1927. H Nathan, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990). P Humbert, Les Astronomers français de 1610 à 1667, Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan, Memoires 63 (1942), 1-72.Authority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 231145542503096641128 SUDOC: 125910355This article about a French painter is a stub
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Mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics
(from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity,[1] structure,[2] space,[1] and change.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[6][7] Mathematicians seek out patterns[8][9] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist
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Councillor
A Councillor is a member of a local government council.Contents1 United Kingdom1.1 Remuneration 1.2 Regional government2 United States 3 The Philippines 4 Finland 5 Turkey 6 Other countries 7 ReferencesUnited Kingdom[edit] All local authorities in the United Kingdom are overseen by elected councillors. These include:unitary authorities county councils and district councils parish, town and community councils The Common Council of the City of London
Common Council of the City of London
(in which councillors are known as aldermen and councilmen)According to Debrett's Correct Form the English title "Councillor" (often shortened to ‘Cllr’) applies only to elected members of city, borough or district councils.[1] However, there is no legal basis for this restriction and in practice the title is applied to all councillors at all levels of local government
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Parlement De Toulouse
The Parlement
Parlement
of Toulouse was one of the parlements of the Kingdom of France. It was modelled on the Parlement
Parlement
of Paris. It was first created in 1420, but definitely established by edicts in 1437 and 1443 by Charles VII as an appellate court of justice on civil, criminal and ecclesiastic affairs for the Languedoc
Languedoc
region, including Quercy, the County of Foix
County of Foix
and Armagnac. It was the first parlement in the south of France, and it gained in prestige both by its distance from Paris and from the differences between southern France's legal system (based on Roman law) and northern France's. After the Parlement
Parlement
of Paris, the Parlement
Parlement
of Toulouse had the largest jurisdiction in France
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