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Pierre Joseph Pelletier
Pierre-Joseph Pelletier (22 March 1788 – 19 July 1842) was a French chemist and pharmacist[1] who did notable research on vegetable alkaloids, and was the co-discoverer with Joseph Bienaimé Caventou
Joseph Bienaimé Caventou
of quinine, caffeine, and strychnine.[2] He was also a collaborator and co-author with Polish chemist Filip Walter. See also[edit]Joseph Bienaimé Caventou Filip Nariusz WalterReferences[edit]^ "Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph". encyclopedia.com. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 20 May 2017.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pierre-Joseph Pelletier". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Further reading[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pierre Joseph Pelletier.Delepine, Marcel (1951). "Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Caventou". Journal of Chemical Education
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Filip Neriusz Walter
Filip Neriusz Walter (31 May 1810 – 9 April 1847) was a Polish chemist and pioneer of organic chemistry.[1]Contents1 Life 2 See also 3 Notes 4 BibliographyLife[edit] He was one of the youngest students of the Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
in Kraków, where he studied history and chemistry in 1825–28. Subsequently, he studied at Berlin University, receiving a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
with his dissertation On Combination of Oxalic Acid and Alkali. Simultaneously he served as assistant to Professor Eilhard Mitscherlich.[2] On the outbreak of the November 1830 Uprising, he went to Warsaw
Warsaw
and joined the Polish Army
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
(BnF, English: National Library of France; French: [bi.bli.jɔ.tɛk na.sjɔ.nal də fʁɑ̃s]) is the national library of France, located in Paris. It is the national repository of all that is published in France
France
and also holds extensive historical collections.Contents1 History 2 New buildings 3 Mission 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection 5 Digital library 6 List of directors6.1 1369–1792 6.2 1792–present7 Films about the library 8 Famous patrons 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksHistory[edit] The National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace
Louvre Palace
by Charles V in 1368
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Strychnine
Strychnine
Strychnine
(/ˈstrɪkniːn/ STRIK-neen; also US: /ˈstrɪknaɪn/ STRIK-nyne or /ˈstrɪknɪn/ STRIK-nin) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents. Strychnine, when inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the eyes or mouth, causes poisoning which results in muscular convulsions and eventually death through asphyxia.[4] While it has no known medicinal effects, in the past the convulsant effect was believed to be beneficial in small doses
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.[1][2] In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology.[3] It is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level.[4] For example, chemistry explains aspects of
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Pharmacy
Pharmacy
Pharmacy
is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services related to health care, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize use of medication for the benefit of the patients. An establishment in which pharmacy (in the first sense) is practiced is called a pharmacy (this term is more common in the United States) or a chemist's (which is more common in Great Britain)
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Chemist
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista[1]) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties. The word 'chemist' is also used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition, and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful naturally occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists
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Pharmacist
Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. A pharmacist is a member of the health care team directly involved with patient care.[1][2] Pharmacists undergo university-level education to understand the biochemical mechanisms and actions of drugs, drug uses, therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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SNAC
Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) is an online project for discovering, locating, and using distributed historical records in regard to individual people, families, and organizations.[1]Contents1 History 2 Data gathering 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] SNAC was established in 2010, with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA),[2] California Digital Library (CDL),
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Author Citation (botany)
In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name, i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).[1] In cases where a species is no longer in its original generic placement (i.e. a new combination of genus and specific epithet), both the author(s) of the original genus placement and those of the new combination are given (the former in parentheses). In botany, it is customary (though not obligatory) to abbreviate author names according to a recognised list of standard abbreviations. There are differences between the botanical code and the normal practice in zoology. In zoology, the publication year is given following the author name(s) and the authorship of a new combination is normally omitted
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Catholic Encyclopedia
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church,[1] also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia,[2] is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church. The first volume appeared in March 1907 and the last three volumes appeared in 1912, followed by a master index volume in 1914 and later supplementary volumes. It was designed "to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine".[3][4] The Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
was published by the Robert Appleton Company (RAC), a publishing company incorporated at New York in February 1905 for the express purpose of publishing the encyclopedia
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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International Standard Name Identifier
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researchers to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers. It is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education [fr] (ABES).External links[edit] Official website This article relating to library science or information science is a stub
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Alkaloids
Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral[2] and even weakly acidic properties.[3] Some synthetic compounds of similar structure are also termed alkaloids.[4] In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and, more rarely, other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.[5] Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction. Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities including antimalarial (e.g. quinine), antiasthma (e.g. ephedrine), anticancer (e.g. homoharringtonine),[6] cholinomimetic (e.g. galantamine),[7] vasodilatory (e.g. vincamine), antiarrhythmic (e.g. quinidine), analgesic (e.g. morphine),[8] antibacterial (e.g
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