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Pińczów
Pińczów
Pińczów
pronounced [ˈpʲiɲt͡ʂuf] is a town in Poland, in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, about 40 km south of Kielce. It is the capital of Pińczów
Pińczów
County. Population is 12,304 (2005). Pińczów
Pińczów
belongs to the historic Polish province of Lesser Poland, and lies in the valley of the Nida river. The town has a station on a narrow-gauge line, called Holy Cross Mountains RailContents1 History 2 Main sights 3 Sports 4 Twin towns 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] In the 12th century in the location of current Pińczów
Pińczów
there was a quarry. The miners working at the quarry probably resided in a gord, which was destroyed in 1241, during the Mongol invasion of Poland. In the first half of the 14th century a Gothic castle was erected in the spot where once the gord stood
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (
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Partitions Of Poland
The Partitions of Poland[nb 1] were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures and annexations.[1][2][3][4] The First Partition of Poland
Poland
was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades later, Russian and Prussian troops entered the Commonwealth again and the Second Partition was signed on January 23, 1793. Austria did not participate in the Second Partition
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Deluge (history)
The term Deluge (Polish: pоtор szwedzki, Lithuanian: švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
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Great Northern War
Coalition victory:Tsardom of Russia
Russia
establishes itself as a new power in Europe. Decline of the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.Territorial changesTreaty of Nystad: Russia
Russia
gains the three dominions Estonia, Livonia and Ingria
Ingria
as well as parts of Kexholm
Kexholm
and Viborg. Treaties of Stockholm: Prussia gains parts of Swedish Pomerania; Hanover gains Bremen-Verden. Treaty of Frederiksborg: Holstein–Gottorp loses its part of the Duchy of Schleswig
Duchy of Schleswig
to Denmark. Treaty of the Pruth: Azov and area is ceded back to the Ottoman Empire. Russia
Russia
demolishes strategic castles such as Taganrog
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Charles XII Of Sweden
Charles XII, also Carl (Swedish: Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.[1]), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden
Sweden
from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. He assumed power, after a seven-month caretaker government, at the age of fifteen.[2] In 1700, a triple alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony–Poland– Lithuania
Lithuania
and Russia launched a threefold attack on the Swedish protectorate of Swedish Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
and provinces of Livonia
Livonia
and Ingria, aiming to draw advantage as Sweden
Sweden
was unaligned and ruled by a young and inexperienced king, thus initiating the Great Northern War
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Battle Of Kliszów
12,000:[a] 8,000 foot, 4,000 horse, 4 three-pounder guns24,000:[b] 7,500 Saxon foot, 9,000 Saxon horse, 46 artillery pieces 660 Polish foot, 6,640 Polish horse, 4 or 5 cannonCasualties and losses1,100:[c] 300 killed, 800 wounded4,400:[d] 1,800 killed, 900 wounded, 1,700 capturedNotes^[a] The Swedish army in the battle had an official paperstrength of 16,230 men[1] with 4 four–pounder guns, but in reality only between 10,000[2] and 12,000 men (two thirds being infantry) was fit for combat due to famine, disease and exhaustion.[1] ^[b] The Saxon army in the battle had an official paperstrength of 22,230 men[1] with 46 artillery pieces, but in reality only between 15,000[2] and 18,000 men (more than half being cavalry) was fit for combat due to famine, disease and exhaustion
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Habsburg Empire
The Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
(German: Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine
Habsburg-Lorraine
until 1918. The Monarchy
Monarchy
was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611,[2] when it was moved to Prague
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Voivodeships Of Poland
A województwo ([vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ]; plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries. The term "województwo" has been in use since the 14th century, and is commonly translated in English as "province".[1] Województwo is also rendered in English by "voivodeship" (/ˈvɔɪvoʊdʃɪp/) or a variant spelling.[2] The Polish local government reforms
Polish local government reforms
adopted in 1998, which went into effect on 1 January 1999, created sixteen new voivodeships. These replaced the 49 former voivodeships that had existed from 1 July 1975, and bear greater resemblance (in territory but not in name) to the voivodeships that existed between 1950 and 1975. Today's voivodeships are mostly named after historical and geographical regions, while those prior to 1998 generally took their names from the cities on which they were centered
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Congress Poland
The Kingdom of Poland,[1] informally known as Congress Poland[2] or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland
Poland
connected by personal union with the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
until 1832
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Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland
Poland
between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the Republic
Republic
of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany, the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland
Poland
also shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia
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Sandomierz
Sandomierz
Sandomierz
(pronounced: [sanˈdɔmʲɛʂ] ( listen); Yiddish: Sandomir סאנדומיר‎) is a town in south-eastern Poland
Poland
with 25,714 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship
Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship
(since 1999). It is the capital of Sandomierz County
Sandomierz County
(since 1999). Sandomierz
Sandomierz
is known for its Old Town, which is a major tourist attraction
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