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Phyllosilicates
Silicate
Silicate
minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups
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Allanite
Allanite
Allanite
(also called orthite) is a sorosilicate group of minerals within the broader epidote group that contain a significant amount of rare-earth elements. The mineral occurs mainly in metamorphosed clay-rich sediments and felsic igneous rocks. It has the general formula A2M3Si3O12[OH], where the A sites can contain large cations such as Ca2+, Sr2+, and rare-earth elements, and the M sites admit Al3+, Fe3+, Mn3+, Fe2+, or Mg2+ among others.[4] However, a large amount of additional elements, including Th, U, Zr, P, Ba, Cr and others may be present in the mineral
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Titanite
Titanite, or sphene (from the Greek sphenos (σφηνώ), meaning wedge[4]), is a calcium titanium nesosilicate mineral, CaTiSiO5. Trace impurities of iron and aluminium are typically present
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Andalusite
Andalusite
Andalusite
is an aluminium nesosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. Andalusite
Andalusite
is trimorphic with kyanite and sillimanite, being the lower pressure mid temperature polymorph. At higher temperatures and pressures, andalusite may convert to sillimanite
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Sillimanite
Sillimanite
Sillimanite
is an aluminosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. Sillimanite
Sillimanite
is named after the American chemist Benjamin Silliman (1779–1864). It was first described in 1824 for an occurrence in Chester, Middlesex County, Connecticut, US.[3] Occurrence[edit]Silimanite crystal from Sri Lanka Sillimanite
Sillimanite
is one of three aluminosilicate polymorphs, the other two being andalusite and kyanite. A common variety of sillimanite is known as fibrolite, so named because the mineral appears like a bunch of fibres twisted together when viewed in thin section or even by the naked eye. Both the fibrous and traditional forms of sillimanite are common in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. It is an index mineral indicating high temperature but variable pressure. Example rocks include gneiss and granulite
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Dumortierite
Dumortierite
Dumortierite
is a fibrous variably colored aluminium boro-silicate mineral, Al7BO3(SiO4)3O3. Dumortierite
Dumortierite
crystallizes in the orthorhombic system typically forming fibrous aggregates of slender prismatic crystals. The crystals are vitreous and vary in color from brown, blue, and green to more rare violet and pink. Substitution of iron and other tri-valent elements for aluminium result in the color variations. It has a Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
of 7 and a specific gravity of 3.3 to 3.4
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Topaz
Topaz
Topaz
is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2. Topaz
Topaz
crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces. It is one of the hardest naturally occurring minerals (Mohs hardness of 8) and is the hardest of any silicate (i.e., silicon-based) mineral
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Staurolite
Staurolite
Staurolite
is a red brown to black, mostly opaque, nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, has a Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
of 7 to 7.5 and the chemical formula: Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O,OH)2. Magnesium, zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron can substitute for aluminium.[1]Contents1 Properties 2 Name 3 Occurrence 4 Use 5 ReferencesProperties[edit] Staurolite
Staurolite
from Madagascar Staurolite
Staurolite
often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape, called cruciform penetration twinning.[5] In handsamples, macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. The mineral often forms porphyroblasts. In thin sections staurolite is commonly twinned and shows lower first order birefringence similar to quartz, with the twinning displaying optical continuity
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Humite
Humite
Humite
is a mineral found in the volcanically ejected masses of Vesuvius. It was first described in 1813 and named for Abraham Hume (1749–1838).[4] See also[edit]Earth sciences portalJerrygibbsite Chondrodite Clinohumite AlleghanyiteReferences[edit]^ Handbook of Mineralogy ^ Webmineral data ^ Mindat w/ locations ^ Deer, W.; Howie, R.; Zussman, J. (1997). Rock-forming Minerals: Volume 1A, Second Edition, Orthosilicates. Bath, UK: The Geological Society. ISBN 1-897799-88-8. External links[edit] Media related to Humite
Humite
at Wikimedia CommonsThis article about a specific silicate mineral is a stub
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Norbergite
Norbergite
Norbergite
is a nesosilicate mineral with formula Mg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2. It is a member of the humite group. It was first described in 1926 for an occurrence in the Östanmoss iron mine in Norberg, Västmanland, Sweden, for which it is named.[1][2][4] It occurs in contact metamorphic zones in carbonate rocks intruded by plutonic rocks or pegmatites supplying the fluorine. Associated minerals include dolomite, calcite, tremolite, grossular, wollastonite, forsterite, monticellite, cuspidine, fluoborite, ludwigite, fluorite and phlogopite.[3] References[edit]^ a b Norbergite
Norbergite
data on Webmineral ^ a b Norbergite
Norbergite
on Mindat.org ^ a b Norbergite
Norbergite
in the Handbook of Mineralogy ^ "Norbergite". merriam-webster.com. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 15 September 2013. This article about a specific silicate mineral is a stub
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Chondrodite
Chondrodite
Chondrodite
is a nesosilicate mineral with formula (Mg,Fe)5(SiO4)2(F,OH,O)2. Although it is a fairly rare mineral, it is the most frequently encountered member of the humite group of minerals. It is formed in hydrothermal deposits from locally metamorphosed dolomite. It is also found associated with skarn and serpentinite. It was discovered in 1817 on Mt. Somma, part of the Vesuvius
Vesuvius
complex in Italy, and named from the Greek for "granule", which is a common habit for this mineral.Contents1 Formula 2 Structure 3 Unit cell 4 Color 5 Optical properties 6 Environment 7 See also 8 ReferencesFormula[edit] Mg5(SiO4)2F2 is the end member formula as given by the International Mineralogical Association,[8] molar mass 351.6 g
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Clinohumite
Titanoan; (Mg,Fe2+,Ti)9 [(F,OH,O)2(SiO4)4] [5][6] Clinohumite
Clinohumite
is an uncommon member of the humite group, a magnesium silicate according to the chemical formula (Mg, Fe)9(SiO4)4(F,OH)2. The formula can be thought of as four olivine (Mg2SiO4), plus one brucite (Mg(OH)2). Indeed, the mineral is essentially a hydrated olivine and occurs in altered ultramafic rocks and carbonatites. Most commonly found as tiny indistinct grains, large euhedral clinohumite crystals are sought by collectors and occasionally fashioned into bright, yellow-orange gemstones. Only two sources of gem-quality material are known: the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
of Tajikistan, and the Taymyr region of northern Siberia
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Datolite
Datolite
Datolite
is a calcium boron hydroxide nesosilicate, CaBSiO4(OH). It was first observed by Jens Esmark
Jens Esmark
in 1806, and named by him from δατεῖσθαι, "to divide," and λίθος, "stone," in allusion to the granular structure of the massive mineral.[4] Datolite
Datolite
crystallizes in the monoclinic system forming prismatic crystals and nodular masses. The luster is vitreous and may be brown, yellow, light green or colorless. The Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
is 5.5 and the specific gravity is 2.8 - 3.0.Polished datolite nodule from the Quincy Mine of Michigan’s Copper Country (size: 4.1 x 3.3 x 1.7 cm)The type localities are in the diabases of the Connecticut River valley and Arendal, Aust-Agder, Norway. Associated minerals include prehnite, danburite, babingtonite, epidote, native copper, calcite, quartz and zeolites
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Chloritoid
Tabular pseudohexagonal crystals; rosettes, commonly coarsely foliated with foliae typically curved or bent; also massiveTwinning Common on 001 , polysynthetic may be lamellarCleavage Perfect on 001 , distinct on 110 ; parting on 010 Tenacity BrittleMohs scale hardness 6.5Luster pearly on cleavage surfacesStreak White, grayish, or very slightly greenishDiaphaneity TranslucentSpecific gravity 3.46 – 3.80Optical properties Biaxial (+) or (–)Refractive index nα = 1.713 - 1.730 nβ = 1.719 - 1.734 nγ = 1.723 - 1.740Birefringence δ = 0.010Pleochroism X = olive-green to yellow; Y = grayish blue to blue; Z = colorless to pale greenish yellow2V angle Measured: 36° to 89°Dispersion r > v; strongReferences [1][2][3] Chloritoid
Chloritoid
is a silicate mineral of metamorphic origin. It is an iron magnesium manganese alumino-silicate hydroxide with formula: (Fe,Mg,Mn)2Al4Si2O10(OH)4
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Hafnon
Hafnon is a hafnium nesosilicate mineral, chemical formula (Hf,Zr)SiO4 or (Hf,Zr,Th,U,Y)SiO4.[1] In natural zircon ZrSiO4 part of the zirconium is replaced by the very similar hafnium and so natural zircon is never pure ZrSiO4
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Mullite
Mullite
Mullite
or porcelainite is a rare silicate mineral of post-clay genesis. It can form two stoichiometric forms 3Al2O32SiO2 or 2Al2O3 SiO2. Unusually, mullite has no charge balancing cations present
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