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Phyllode
In botany, the petiole (/ˈpiːtɪoʊl/) is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.[1]:87 The petiole is the transition between the stem and the leaf blade.[2]:171 Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile or epetiolate.Contents1 Description 2 Etymology 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2015)Harvested rhubarb petioles with leaves attachedThe petiole is a stalk that attaches a leaf to the plant stem. In petiolate leaves, the leaf stalk (petiole) may be long, as in the leaves of celery and rhubarb, short or completely absent, in which case the blade attaches directly to the stem and is said to be sessile
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Archaeplastida
The Archaeplastida
Archaeplastida
(or kingdom Plantae
Plantae
sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.[4] The chloroplasts of all these organisms are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they developed directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. In all other groups besides the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora, the chloroplasts are surrounded by three or four membranes, suggesting they were acquired secondarily from red or green algae. The cells of the Archaeplastida
Archaeplastida
typically lack centrioles and have mitochondria with flat cristae
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Plant Ecology
Plant
Plant
ecology is a subdiscipline of ecology which studies the distribution and abundance of plants, the effects of environmental factors upon the abundance of plants, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms.[1] Examples of these are the distribution of temperate deciduous forests in North America, the effects of drought or flooding upon plant survival, and competition among desert plants for water, or effects of herds of grazing animals upon the composition of grasslands. A global overview of the Earth's major vegetation types is provided by O.W. Archibold.[2] He recognizes 11 major vegetation types: tropical forests, tropical savannas, arid regions (deserts), Mediterranean ecosystems, temperate forest ecosystems, temperate grasslands, coniferous forests, tundra (both polar and high mountain), terrestrial wetlands, freshwater ecosystems and coastal/marine systems
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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Stace, C. A.
Clive Anthony Stace (born 1938) is a British botanist and botanical author. His academic career was based at the University of Leicester, where he held the post of Professor of Plant taxonomy. He is a past president of the Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. In 2012 a newly described grass species, Brachypodium stacei (previously regarded as a form of purple false brome), was named in his honour.[1] He has also been responsible for a number of notable publications relating to the vascular plant flora of Britain and Ireland:Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles New Flora of the British Isles Vice-county Census Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Great Britain Alien PlantsHe also wrote the student textbook Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. The standard author abbreviation Stace is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.[2] References[edit]^ "New species of grass dedicated to University of Leicester botanist"
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Collier's Encyclopedia
Collier's Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
(full title: Collier's Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
with Bibliography and Index) was a United States-based general encyclopedia published by Crowell, Collier and Macmillan. Self-described in its preface as "a scholarly, systematic, continuously revised summary of the knowledge that is most significant to mankind", it was long considered one of the three major contemporary English-language general encyclopedias, together with Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
Americana and Encyclopædia Britannica: the three were sometimes collectively called "the ABCs".Contents1 History 2 Kister's comparison 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] P.F
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History Of Botany
The history of botany examines the human effort to understand life on Earth by tracing the historical development of the discipline of botany—that part of natural science dealing with organisms traditionally treated as plants. Rudimentary botanical science began with empirically-based plant lore passed from generation to generation in the oral traditions of paleolithic hunter-gatherers. The first written records of plants were made in the Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
about 10,000 years ago as writing was developed in the settled agricultural communities where plants and animals were first domesticated
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Branches Of Botany
Botany
Botany
is a natural science concerned with the study of plants
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History Of Plant Systematics
The history of plant systematics—the biological classification of plants—stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists. As a field of science, plant systematics came into being only slowly, early plant lore usually being treated as part of the study of medicine. Later, classification and description was driven by natural history and natural theology. Until the advent of the theory of evolution, nearly all classification was based on the scala naturae
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Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.[1] An ethnobotanist thus strives to document the local customs involving the practical uses of local flora for many aspects of life, such as plants as medicines, foods, and clothing.[2] Richard Evans Schultes, often referred to as the "father of ethnobotany",[3] explained the discipline in this way: Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
simply means ..
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Paleobotany
Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and "botany", study of plants), is the branch of paleontology or paleobiology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use for the biological reconstruction of past environments (paleogeography), and both the evolutionary history of plants, with a bearing upon the evolution of life in general. A synonym is paleophytology. Paleobotany
Paleobotany
includes the study of terrestrial plant fossils, as well as the study of prehistoric marine photoautotrophs, such as photosynthetic algae, seaweeds or kelp
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Plant Anatomy
Plant
Plant
anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants
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Phytogeography
Phytogeography
Phytogeography
(from Greek φυτό, phyto = "plant" and γεωγραφία, geografía = "geography" meaning also distribution) or botanical geography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species and their influence on the earth's surface. Phytogeography
Phytogeography
is concerned with all aspects of plant distribution, from the controls on the distribution of individual species ranges (at both large and small scales, see species distribution) to the factors that govern the composition of entire communities and floras. Geobotany, by contrast, focuses on the geographic space's influence on plants.[citation needed]Contents1 Fields 2 Overview 3 History 4 Floristic regions 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksFields[edit] Phytogeography
Phytogeography
is part of a more general science known as biogeography
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Diminutive
A diminutive is a word which has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.[1][2] A diminutive form (abbreviated DIM) is a word-formation device used to express such meanings; in many languages, such forms can be translated as "little" and diminutives can also be formed as multi-word constructions such as "Tiny Tim". Diminutives are used frequently when speaking to small children or when expressing extreme tenderness and intimacy to an adult. As such, they are often employed for nicknames and pet names. The opposite of the diminutive form is the augmentative
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Geobotanical Prospecting
Geobotanical prospecting refers to prospecting based on indicator plants like metallophytes and the analysis of vegetation. For example, the Viscaria Mine in Sweden was named after the plant Silene suecica (syn. Viscaria alpina) that was used by prospecters to discover the ore deposits.[1] A "most faithful" indicator plant is Ocimum centraliafricanum, the "copper plant" or "copper flower" formerly known as Becium homblei, found only on copper (and nickel) containing soils in central to southern Africa.[2] In 2015, Stephen E. Haggerty identified Pandanus candelabrum
Pandanus candelabrum
as a botanical indicator for kimberlite pipes, a source of mined diamonds.[3] The technique has been used in China
China
since in the 5th century BC. People in the region noticed a connection between vegetation and the minerals located underground
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