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Photophone
The photophone is a telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech on a beam of light. It was invented jointly by Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter
Charles Sumner Tainter
on February 19, 1880, at Bell's laboratory at 1325 L Street in Washington, D.C.[1][2] Both were later to become full associates in the Volta Laboratory Association, created and financed by Bell. On June 3, 1880, Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message from the roof of the Franklin School to the window of Bell's laboratory, some 213 meters (about 700 ft.) away.[3][4][5][6] Bell believed the photophone was his most important invention
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British Admiralty
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty
Admiralty
and Marine Affairs,[1] was the government department[2][3] responsible for the command of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
first in the Kingdom of England, second in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964,[4] the United Kingdom and former British Empire
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Telephone Line
A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. This is the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user's telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. Telephone
Telephone
lines are used to deliver landline telephone service and Digital subscriber line
Digital subscriber line
(DSL) phone cable service to the premises
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Sunlight
Sunlight
Sunlight
is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light
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Parabolic Reflector
A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves. Its shape is part of a circular paraboloid, that is, the surface generated by a parabola revolving around its axis. The parabolic reflector transforms an incoming plane wave traveling along the axis into a spherical wave converging toward the focus. Conversely, a spherical wave generated by a point source placed in the focus is reflected into a plane wave propagating as a collimated beam along the axis. Parabolic reflectors are used to collect energy from a distant source (for example sound waves or incoming star light)
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New York Times
The New York Times
The New York Times
(sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City
New York City
with worldwide influence and readership.[6][7][8] Founded in 1851, the paper has won 122 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper.[9][10] As of September 2016, it had the largest combined print-and-digital circulation of any daily newspaper in the United States.[11] The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation. The paper is owned by The New York Times
The New York Times
Company, which is publicly traded but primarily controlled by the Ochs-Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure.[12] It has been owned by the family since 1896; A.G
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Utility Pole
A utility pole is a column or post used to support overhead power lines and various other public utilities, such as electrical cable, fiber optic cable, and related equipment such as transformers and street lights. It can be referred to as a transmission pole, telephone pole, telecommunication pole, power pole, hydro pole,[1] telegraph pole, or telegraph post, depending on its application. A stobie pole is a multi-purpose pole made of two steel joists held apart by a slab of concrete in the middle, generally found in South Australia. Electrical wires and cables are routed overhead on utility poles as an inexpensive way to keep them insulated from the ground and out of the way of people and vehicles. Utility poles can be made of wood, metal, concrete, or composites like fiberglass
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Nickname
A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing, for affection or ridicule.[1] The term hypocoristic is used to refer to a nickname of affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment. The term diminutive name refers to nicknames that convey smallness, hence something regarded with affection or familiarity (e.g., referring to children), or contempt.[2] The distinction between the two is often blurred. It is a form of endearment and amusement. As a concept, it is distinct from both pseudonym and stage name, and also from a title (for example, City of Fountains), although there may be overlap in these concepts. A moniker also means a nickname or personal name.[3] The word often distinguishes personal names from nicknames that became proper names out of former nicknames
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Intellectual Property
Intellectual property
Intellectual property
(or "IP") is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks. It also includes other types of rights, such as trade secrets, publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair competition. Artistic works like music and literature, as well as some discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property.[1][2] Intellectual property
Intellectual property
law has evolved over centuries. It was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world.[3] The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a large variety of intellectual goods
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Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.[2] The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, graupel and hail. Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy
/spɛkˈtrɒskəpi/ is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.[1][2] Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism. Later the concept was expanded greatly to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopic data are often represented by an emission spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency.Contents1 Introduction 2 Theory 3 Classification of methods3.1 Type of radiative energy 3.2 Nature of the interaction 3.3 Type of material3.3.1 Atoms 3.3.2 Molecules 3.3.3 Crystals and extended materials 3.3.4 Nuclei4 Other types 5 Applications 6 History 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksIntroduction[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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Transit Of Venus, 1874
The 1874 transit of Venus, which took place on 9 December 1874 (01:49 to 06:26 UTC),[1][n 1] was the first of the pair of transits of Venus that took place in the 19th century, with the second transit occurring eight years later in 1882. The previous pair of transits had taken place in 1761 and 1769, and the next pair would not take place until 2004 and 2012.[n 2] As with previous transits, the 1874 transit would provide an opportunity for improved measurements and observations. Numerous expeditions were planned and sent out to observe the transit from locations around the globe, with several countries setting up official committees to organise the planning. There were six official French expeditions
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Star
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth
Earth
is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth
Earth
during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, the brightest of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations
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Sunspot
Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas. They are regions of reduced surface temperature caused by concentrations of magnetic field flux that inhibit convection. Sunspots usually appear in pairs of opposite magnetic polarity.[2] Their number varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle. Individual sunspots or groups of sunspots may last anywhere from a few days to a few months, but eventually decay
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Laser
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation".[1][2] The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman
Theodore H. Maiman
at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes
Charles Hard Townes
and Arthur Leonard Schawlow. A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently, spatially and temporally. Spatial coherence
Spatial coherence
allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications such as laser cutting and lithography. Spatial coherence
Spatial coherence
also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances (collimation), enabling applications such as laser pointers
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Havel
The Havel
Havel
(German: [ˈhaːfl̩] ( listen))[1] is a river in north-eastern Germany, flowing through the German states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Berlin
Berlin
and Saxony-Anhalt. It is a right tributary of the Elbe
Elbe
and 325 kilometres (202 mi) long. However, the direct distance from its source to its mouth is only 94 kilometres (58 mi). For much of its length, the Havel
Havel
is navigable, and it provides an important link in the waterway connections between the east and west of Germany, and beyond.Contents1 Course 2 History 3 Navigation3.1 Head of navigation to Liebenwalde 3.2 Liebenwalde
Liebenwalde
to Spandau 3.3 Spandau
Spandau
to Plaue 3.4 Plaue to Havelberg4 References 5 GalleryCourse[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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