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Photophone
The PHOTOPHONE is a telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech on a beam of light . It was invented jointly by Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter on February 19, 1880, at Bell's laboratory at 1325 L Street in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Both were later to become full associates in the Volta Laboratory Association , created and financed by Bell. On June 3, 1880, Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message from the roof of the Franklin School to the window of Bell's laboratory, some 213 meters (about 700 ft.) away. Bell believed the photophone was his most important invention
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New York Times
THE NEW YORK TIMES (sometimes abbreviated NYT and THE TIMES) is an American daily newspaper , founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by The New York Times Company . The New York Times
The New York Times
has won 122 Pulitzer Prizes , more than any other newspaper. The paper's print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the United States. The New York Times
The New York Times
is ranked 18th in the world by circulation . Following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed "THE GRAY LADY", The New York Times
The New York Times
has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record "
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Utility Pole
A UTILITY POLE is a column or post used to support overhead power lines and various other public utilities, such as electrical cable , fibre optic cable , and related equipment such as transformers and street lights . It can be referred to as a TRANSMISSION POLE, TELEPHONE POLE, telecommunication pole, POWER POLE, HYDRO POLE, TELEGRAPH POLE, or TELEGRAPH POST, depending on its application. A stobie pole is a multi-purpose pole made of two steel joists held apart by a slab of concrete in the middle, generally found in South Australia . Electrical wires and cables are routed overhead on utility poles as an inexpensive way to keep them insulated from the ground and out of the way of people and vehicles. Utility poles can be made of wood, metal, concrete, or composites like fiberglass
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Nickname
A NICKNAME is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing, for affection or ridicule. The term hypocoristic is used to refer to a nickname of affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment . The term diminutive name refers to nicknames that convey smallness, hence something regarded with affection or familiarity (e.g., referring to children), or contempt. The distinction between the two is often blurred. It is a form of endearment and amusement. As a concept, it is distinct from both pseudonym and stage name , and also from a title (for example, City of Fountains), although there may be overlap in these concepts. A MONIKER also means a nickname or personal name. The word often distinguishes personal names from nicknames that became proper names out of former nicknames. English examples are Bob and Rob, nickname variants for Robert
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Intellectual Property
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (or "IP") is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights , patents , and trademarks . It also includes other types of rights, such as trade secrets , publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair competition. Artistic works like music and literature, as well as some discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property. Intellectual property
Intellectual property
law has evolved over centuries. It was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world. The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a wide variety of intellectual goods
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Parabolic Reflector
A PARABOLIC (or PARABOLOID or PARABOLOIDAL) REFLECTOR (or DISH or MIRROR) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light , sound , or radio waves . Its shape is part of a circular paraboloid , that is, the surface generated by a parabola revolving around its axis. The parabolic reflector transforms an incoming plane wave traveling along the axis into a spherical wave converging toward the focus. Conversely, a spherical wave generated by a point source placed in the focus is reflected into a plane wave propagating as a collimated beam along the axis. Parabolic reflectors are used to collect energy from a distant source (for example sound waves or incoming star light). Since the principles of reflection are reversible, parabolic reflectors can also be used to focus radiation from an isotropic source into a narrow beam
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Sunlight
SUNLIGHT is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun
Sun
, in particular infrared , visible , and ultraviolet light. On Earth
Earth
, sunlight is filtered through Earth\'s atmosphere , and is obvious as daylight when the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon . When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds , it is experienced as SUNSHINE, a combination of bright light and radiant heat . When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects , it is experienced as diffused light. The World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
uses the term "sunshine duration " to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun
Sun
of at least 120 watts per square meter . Other sources indicate an "Average over the entire earth" of "164 Watts per square meter over a 24 hour day"
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Molybdenite
MOLYBDENITE is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide , Mo S 2. Similar in appearance and feel to graphite , molybdenite has a lubricating effect that is a consequence of its layered structure. The atomic structure consists of a sheet of molybdenum atoms sandwiched between sheets of sulfur atoms. The Mo-S bonds are strong, but the interaction between the sulfur atoms at the top and bottom of separate sandwich-like tri-layers is weak, resulting in easy slippage as well as cleavage planes . Molybdenite
Molybdenite
crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system as the common polytype 2H and also in the trigonal system as the 3R polytype. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Occurrence * 1.2 Features * 2 Uses * 2.1 Semiconductor
Semiconductor
* 3 See also * 4 References DESCRIPTIONOCCURRENCE A sample of molybdenite mineral less pure than the single-crystal specimen above
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Carl Zeiss AG
CARL ZEISS (German pronunciation: ), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems , industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena
Jena
, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
. Together with Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
(joined 1866) and Otto Schott (joined 1884) they built a base for modern optics and manufacturing. There are currently two parts of the company, Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG located in Oberkochen
Oberkochen
with important subsidiaries in Aalen , Göttingen
Göttingen
and Munich
Munich
, and Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
GmbH
GmbH
located in Jena. Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG is the premier company of the ZEISS GRUPPE, one of the two large divisions of the CARL-ZEISS-STIFTUNG
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Washington, D.C.
WASHINGTON, D.C., formally the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA and commonly referred to as "WASHINGTON", "THE DISTRICT", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast . The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia
Virginia
each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria . Named in honor of President George Washington
George Washington
, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital
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Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology , PRECIPITATION is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity . The main forms of precipitation include drizzle , rain , sleet , snow , graupel and hail . Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Telephone Line
A TELEPHONE LINE or TELEPHONE CIRCUIT (or just LINE or CIRCUIT within the industry ) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. This is the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user's telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. Telephone
Telephone
lines are used to deliver landline telephone service and Digital subscriber line (DSL) phone cable service to the premises. Telephone
Telephone
overhead lines are connected to the public switched telephone network . UNITED STATESIn 1878, the Bell Telephone
Telephone
Company began to use two-wire circuits (called the local loop ) from each user's telephone to end offices which performed any necessary electrical switching to allow voice signals to be transmitted to more distant telephones
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German Navy
The GERMAN NAVY (German : DEUTSCHE MARINE or simply German : MARINE— listen (help ·info )) is the navy of Germany
Germany
and part of the unified Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
("Federal Defense"), the German Armed Forces. The German Navy
Navy
was originally known as the Bundesmarine ("Federal Navy") from 1956 until 1995 when Deutsche Marine ("German Navy") became the official name with respect to the 1990 incorporation of the East German Volksmarine ("People's Navy"). It is deeply integrated into the NATO
NATO
alliance. Its primary mission is protection of Germany's territorial waters and maritime infrastructure as well as sea lines of communication . Apart from this, the German Navy
Navy
participates in peacekeeping operations, and renders humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. They also participate in Anti-Piracy operations
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Searchlight
A SEARCHLIGHT (or SPOTLIGHT) is an apparatus that combines an extremely luminous source (traditionally a carbon arc lamp ) with a mirrored parabolic reflector to project a powerful beam of light of approximately parallel rays in a particular direction, usually constructed so that it can be swiveled about. CONTENTS* 1 Military use * 1.1 First World War * 1.2 Second World War * 2 Non-military use * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Notes * 6 External links MILITARY USE Russian troops use a searchlight against a Japanese night attack during the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
, 1904 The first use of searchlights using carbon arc technology occurred during the Siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
. The Royal Navy used searchlights in 1882 to prevent Egyptian forces from staffing artillery batteries at Alexandria
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British Admiralty
The ADMIRALTY formerly known as the OFFICE OF THE ADMIRALTY AND MARINE AFFAIRS, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy first in the Kingdom of England , second in the Kingdom of Great Britain , and from 1801-1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire . Originally exercised by a single person, the Lord High Admiral , the Admiralty was, from the early 18th century onwards, almost invariably put "in commission" and exercised by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty , who sat on the Board of Admiralty. In 1964, the functions of the Admiralty were transferred to a new Admiralty Board , which is a committee of the tri-service Defence Council of the United Kingdom and part of the Navy Department of the Ministry of Defence
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Siemens & Halske
SIEMENS & HALSKE AG (or SIEMENS-HALSKE) was a German electrical engineering company that later became part of Siemens
Siemens
. It was founded on 12 October 1847 as Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens
Siemens
& Halske by Werner von Siemens
Siemens
and Johann Georg Halske . The company, located in Berlin
Berlin
- Kreuzberg , specialised in manufacturing electrical telegraphs according to Charles Wheatstone
Charles Wheatstone
's patent of 1837. In 1848, the company constructed one of the first European telegraph lines from Berlin
Berlin
to Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main

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