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Phonographic Record
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac; starting in the 1950s polyvinyl chloride became common. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or simply vinyl, although this would exclude most records made until after World War II. The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had effectively superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed
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Phonograph Record (magazine)
Phonograph Record was an American monthly rock music magazine that operated between 1970 and 1978. It was founded in September 1970 in Los Angeles, California, by Marty Cerf, as a rival to Creem
Creem
and Rolling Stone,[1] and funded by United Artists.[2] In addition to being a newsstand title, the magazine was available through radio stations throughout the United States[1] and distributed free to music retailers.[2] It was often referred to as PRM, due to the inclusion of the word "magazine" in the masthead.[2] Aside from Cerf, Greg Shaw and Ken Barnes variously served as editor of Phonograph Record before its final issue in May 1978. It also featured reviews and other contributions from noted music journalists such as Lester Bangs, Jon Tiven, John Mendelsohn, Mitchell Cohen, Metal Mike Saunders, Bud Scoppa, Richard Cromelin, Mark Leviton and Jonh Ingham.[1] References[edit]^ a b c "Phonograph Record articles, interviews and reviews"
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Emile Berliner
Emile Berliner
Emile Berliner
(May 20, 1851 – August 3, 1929), originally Emil Berliner, was a German-born American inventor. He is best known for inventing the flat disc phonograph record (called a “gramophone record” in British and American English) and the Gramophone. He founded the United States Gramophone Company
Gramophone Company
in 1894,[1] The Gramophone Company
Gramophone Company
in London, England, in 1897, Deutsche Grammophon
Deutsche Grammophon
in Hanover, Germany, in 1898, Berliner Gram-o-phone Company of Canada in Montreal
Montreal
in 1899 (chartered in 1904), and Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901 with Eldridge Johnson.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Awards 4 Death 5 Publications5.1 Books 5.2 Patents6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Berliner was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1851 into a Jewish merchant family
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Édouard-Léon Scott De Martinville
Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
(25 April 1817 – 26 April 1879) was a French printer and bookseller who lived in Paris. He invented the earliest known sound recording device, the phonautograph, which was patented in France on 25 March 1857.[1][2][3]Contents1 Early years 2 Phonautograph 3 Rediscovery of the Au clair de la lune
Au clair de la lune
recording 4 Publications 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEarly years[edit] As a printer by trade, he was able to read accounts of the latest scientific discoveries and became an inventor. Scott de Martinville was interested in recording the sound of human speech in a way similar to that achieved by the then new technology of photography for light and image. He hoped for a form of stenography that could record the whole of a conversation without any omissions
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Diaphragm (acoustics)
In the field of acoustics, a diaphragm is a transducer intended to inter-convert mechanical vibrations to sounds, or vice versa. It is commonly constructed of a thin membrane or sheet of various materials, suspended at its edges. The varying air pressure of sound waves imparts mechanical vibrations to the diaphragm which can then be converted to some other type of signal; examples of this type of diaphragm are found in microphones and the human eardrum. Conversely a diaphragm vibrated by a source of energy beats against the air, creating sound waves. Examples of this type of diaphragm are loudspeaker cones and earphone diaphragms and are found in air horns.Contents1 Loudspeaker 2 Microphone 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 ReferencesLoudspeaker[edit] In a dynamic loudspeaker, a diaphragm is the thin, semi-rigid membrane attached to the voice coil, which moves in a magnetic gap, vibrating the diaphragm, and producing sound
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Audio Engineer
An audio engineer (also sometimes recording engineer or a vocal engineer) helps to produce a recording or a performance, editing and adjusting sound tracks using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer ..
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Phonautogram
The phonautograph is the earliest known device for recording sound. Previously, tracings had been obtained of the sound-producing vibratory motions of tuning forks and other objects by physical contact with them, but not of actual sound waves as they propagated through air or other media. Invented by Frenchman Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, it was patented on March 25, 1857.[1] It transcribed sound waves as undulations or other deviations in a line traced on smoke-blackened paper or glass
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Tuning Fork
A tuning fork is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two-pronged fork with the prongs (tines) formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic metal (usually steel). It resonates at a specific constant pitch when set vibrating by striking it against a surface or with an object, and emits a pure musical tone once the high overtones die out. The pitch that a particular tuning fork generates depends on the length and mass of the two prongs
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Thomas Edison
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.[1][2][3] He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park",[4] he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.[5] Edison was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. More significant than the number of Edison's patents was the widespread impact of his inventions: electric light and power utilities, sound recording, and motion pictures all established major new industries worldwide
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Telephone
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. In 1876, Scottish emigrant Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced clearly intelligible replication of the human voice. This instrument was further developed by many others. The telephone was the first device in history that enabled people to talk directly with each other across large distances
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Telegraph
Telegraphy
Telegraphy
(from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy
Telegraphy
requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy. The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy
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Tin Foil
Tin
Tin
foil, also spelled tinfoil, is a thin foil made of tin. Actual tin foil was superseded after World War II
World War II
by cheaper and more durable[1] aluminium foil, which is still referred to as "tinfoil" in many regions. History[edit] Foil made from a thin leaf of tin was commercially available before its aluminium counterpart.[2] In the late 19th century and early 20th century, tin foil was in common use, and some people continue to refer to the new product by the name of the old one. Tin
Tin
foil is stiffer than aluminium foil.[3] It tends to give a slight tin taste to food wrapped in it, which is a major reason it has largely been replaced by aluminium and other materials for wrapping food. The first aluminium foil rolling plant, “Dr. Lauber, Neher & Cie., Emmishofen.” was opened in 1910 in Kreuzlingen, Switzerland. The plant, owned by aluminium manufacturers J.G
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Scientific American
Scientific American
Scientific American
(informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles in the past 170 years. It is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States (though it only became monthly in 1921).Contents1 History 2 International editions 3 First issue 4 Editors 5 Special
Special
issues 6 Scientific American
Scientific American
50 award 7 Website 8 Columns 9 Television 10 Books 11 Scientific and political debate 12 Awards 13 Top 10 Science Stories of the Year 14 Controversy 15 See also 16 References 17 External linksHistory[edit] Scientific American
Scientific American
was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in 1845[2] as a four-page weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U.S
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Graphophone
The Graphophone
Graphophone
was the name and trademark of an improved version of the phonograph
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Quadraphonic Sound
Quadraphonic (or Quadrophonic and sometimes Quadrasonic) sound – equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another. Quadraphonic audio was the earliest consumer product in surround sound and thousands of quadraphonic recordings were made during the 1970s. It was a commercial failure due to many technical problems and format incompatibilities. Quadraphonic audio formats were more expensive to produce than standard two-channel stereo
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Berliner Gramophone
Berliner Gramophone
Berliner Gramophone
– its discs identified with an etched-in "E. Berliner's Gramophone" as the logo – was the first (and for nearly ten years the only) disc record label in the world. Its records were played on Emile Berliner's invention, the Gramophone, which competed with the wax cylinder–playing phonographs that were more common in the 1890s.Contents1 History 2 Foreign Interests 3 Legacy and Preservation 4 Berliner recording artists 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Emile Berliner
Emile Berliner
received U.S
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