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Philippine Peso
The PHILIPPINE PESO ( Philippine English pronunciation: /ˈpɛsoʊ/ ; Filipino : piso or ; sign : ₱; code : PHP) is the official currency of the Philippines
Philippines
. It is subdivided into 100 céntimos (Filipino: sentimo). As a former colony of the United States
United States
, the country used English on its currency, with the word "peso" appearing on notes and coinage until 1967. Since the adoption of Filipino language for banknotes and coins, the term "piso" is now used. The peso is usually denoted by the symbol "₱". Other ways of writing the Philippine peso sign are "PHP", "PhP", "Php", "P$", or just "P". The "₱" symbol was added to the Unicode
Unicode
standard in version 3.2 and is assigned U+20B1 (₱). The symbol can be accessed through some word processors by typing in "20b1" and then pressing the Alt and X buttons simultaneously
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Filipino Language
FILIPINO /ˌfɪlɪˈpiːnoʊ/ ( listen ) (Wikang Filipino ), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines
Philippines
. Filipino is also designated, along with English , as an official language of the country. It is the standard register of the Tagalog language
Tagalog language
, an Austronesian , regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population , while 45 million speak Tagalog as their second language . Tagalog is among the 185 languages of the Philippines
Philippines
identified in the Ethnologue
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Currency
A CURRENCY (from Middle English : curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin : currens, -entis) in the most specific use of the word refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange , especially circulating banknotes and coins . A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation. Under this definition, US dollars, British pounds, Australian dollars, and European euros are examples of currency. These various currencies are recognized stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets , which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote , coin , and money
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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English Language In The Philippines
PHILIPPINE ENGLISH is any variety of English (similar and related to American English
American English
) native to the Philippines
Philippines
, including those used by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos . English is taught in schools as one of the two official languages of the country, the other being Filipino (Tagalog ). Code-switching is prevalent in informal situations. CONTENTS * 1 Orthography and grammar * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants * 3 Vocabulary * 4 History * 5 Industries based on English * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links ORTHOGRAPHY AND GRAMMARPhilippine laws and court decisions, with extremely rare exceptions, are written solely in English. English is also used in higher education , religious affairs, print and broadcast media, and business
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Philippine English
PHILIPPINE ENGLISH is any variety of English (similar and related to American English
American English
) native to the Philippines
Philippines
, including those used by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos . English is taught in schools as one of the two official languages of the country, the other being Filipino (Tagalog ). Code-switching is prevalent in informal situations. CONTENTS * 1 Orthography and grammar * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants * 3 Vocabulary * 4 History * 5 Industries based on English * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links ORTHOGRAPHY AND GRAMMARPhilippine laws and court decisions, with extremely rare exceptions, are written solely in English. English is also used in higher education , religious affairs, print and broadcast media, and business
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Tagalog Language
TAGALOG (/təˈɡɑːlɒɡ/ ; Tagalog pronunciation: ) is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority. Its standardized form, officially named Filipino , is the national language of the Philippines, and is one of two official languages alongside English . It is related to other Philippine languages , such as the Bikol languages , Ilocano , the Visayan languages , Kapampangan , and Pangasinan , and more distantly to other Austronesian languages, such as the Formosan languages of Taiwan , Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian ), Hawaiian , Māori , and Malagasy
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Monetary Inflation
MONETARY INFLATION is a sustained increase in the money supply of a country (or currency area). Depending on many factors, especially public expectations, the fundamental state and development of the economy, and the transmission mechanism , it is likely to result in price inflation , which is usually just called "inflation", which is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services. There is general agreement among economists that there is a causal relationship between monetary inflation and price inflation. But there is neither a common view about the exact theoretical mechanisms and relationships, nor about how to accurately measure it. This relationship is also constantly changing, within a larger complex economic system
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Consumer Price Index
A CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (CPI) measures changes in the price level of market basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households. The CPI is a statistical estimate constructed using the prices of a sample of representative items whose prices are collected periodically. Sub-indices and sub-sub-indices are computed for different categories and sub-categories of goods and services, being combined to produce the overall index with weights reflecting their shares in the total of the consumer expenditures covered by the index. It is one of several price indices calculated by most national statistical agencies. The annual percentage change in a CPI is used as a measure of inflation . A CPI can be used to index (i.e., adjust for the effect of inflation) the real value of wages, salaries, pensions , for regulating prices and for deflating monetary magnitudes to show changes in real values
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Banknote
A BANKNOTE (often known as a BILL, PAPER MONEY, or simply a NOTE) is a type of negotiable instrument known as a promissory note , made by a bank , payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by commercial banks, who were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender (usually gold or silver coin) when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank. Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks . National banknotes are generally legal tender , meaning that medium of payment is allowed by law or recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation. Historically, banks sought to ensure that they could always pay customers in coins when they presented banknotes for payment
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Coin
A COIN is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender . They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy , or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins . Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes . Usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation
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Rajah
RAJA (/ˈrɑːdʒɑː/ ; also spelled RAJAH, from Sanskrit राजन् rājan-), is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in South and Southeast Asia. The female form RANI (sometimes spelled RANEE) applies equally to the wife of a raja (or of an equivalent style such as rana), usually as queen consort and occasionally as regent. The title has a long history in the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia , being attested from the Rigveda
Rigveda
, where a rājan- is a ruler , see for example the dāśarājñá , the "battle of ten kings"
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Lakan
In early Philippine history , the rank of LAKAN denoted a "paramount ruler " (or more specifically, "paramount datu ") of one of the large coastal barangays (known as a "bayan") on the central and southern regions of the island of Luzon
Luzon
. Belonging to the Maginoo social class, the lakan was democratically selected by other ruling Datus from among themselves, to serve as "pangulo" (head). Writers such as William Henry Scott have suggested that this rank is equivalent to that of Rajah
Rajah
, and that different ethnic groups either used one term or the other, or used the two words interchangeably. But other writers such as Nick Joaquin
Nick Joaquin
have suggested that the usage of the term "Rajah" specifically indicates leadership of a bayan or barangay which has extensive trade relations with Muslim traders
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Sultan
SULTAN (/ˈsʌltən/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate , or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a SULTANATE (سلطنة salṭanah)
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