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Philippine Mobile Belt
The PHILIPPINE MOBILE BELT is a complex portion of the tectonic boundary between the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
and the Philippine Sea Plate
Philippine Sea Plate
, comprising most of the country of the Philippines
Philippines
. It includes two subduction zones, the Manila Trench
Manila Trench
to the west and the Philippine Trench to the east, as well as the Philippine Fault System
Philippine Fault System
. Within the Belt, a number of crustal blocks or microplates which have been shorn off the adjoining major plates are undergoing massive deformation
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Accretion (geology)
ACCRETION is a process by which material is added to a tectonic plate or a landmass . This material may be sediment, volcanic arcs , seamounts or other igneous features. DESCRIPTIONAccretion involves the addition of material to a tectonic plate. When two tectonic plates collide, one of the plates may slide under the other, a process known as subduction . The plate which is being subducted, is floating on the asthenosphere and is pushed against the other, over-riding plate. Sediment on the ocean floor will often be scraped from the subducting plate. This causes the sediment to accumulate as a mass of material called an accretionary wedge , which attaches itself to the upper plate. Volcanic island arcs or seamounts may collide with the continent, and as they are of relatively light material (i.e. low density) they will often not be subducted, but are added to the side of the continent
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Kanlaon
KANLAON (Hiligaynon : Bulkan sang Kanlaon; Cebuano : Bulkan sa Kanlaon; Spanish : Volcán de Canlaon, Malaspina), also spelled as KANLA-ON or sometimes CANLAON, is an active stratovolcano on the island of Negros, Philippines
Philippines
. It is the highest point in Negros, as well as the whole Visayas , with an elevation of 2,465 m (8,087 ft) above sea level. The volcano straddles the provinces of Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental , approximately 30 km (19 mi) southeast of Bacolod
Bacolod
, the capital and most populous city of Negros Occidental and of the whole island region. It is one of the active volcanoes in the Philippines and part of the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
. CONTENTS * 1 Physical features * 2 Hiking Destination and Trails * 2.1 Trails & Hiking Markers System * 2.2 Hiking Markers Standard on Mt
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Sierra Madre (Philippines)
SIERRA (Spanish for mountain range and saw , from Latin serra ) can refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Mountains and mountain ranges * 2 Place names * 3 Organizations * 4 People * 5 In film and television * 6 Vehicles * 7 Other uses * 8 See also MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAIN RANGES * Sierra mountains (other) * Sierra de Juárez , mountain range in Baja California, Mexico * Sierra Madre (other)
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Mount Matutum
MATUTUM is an active volcano , approximately 5.7 kilometres (3.5 mi) from Acmonan, Tupi, South Cotabato , Philippines
Philippines
. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Physical features * 3 Eruptions * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links LOCATIONMatutum is located in the province of South Cotabato , on the island of Mindanao
Mindanao
, in the south of the Philippines
Philippines
, at geographical coordinates 6°22'N, 125°06.5'E. It is 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of Polomolok , and about 30 kilometres (19 mi) north-northwest of General Santos City
General Santos City
. PHYSICAL FEATURESMatutum is a stratovolcano that rises 2,286 metres (7,500 ft) asl with a base diameter of 25 kilometres (16 mi). It has 2 hot springs , called Acmonan and Linan, 5.7 kilometres (3.5 mi) west-southwest of the volcano
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Mindanao
MINDANAO (/mɪndəˈnaʊ/ ( listen )) is the second largest island in the Philippines
Philippines
. Mindanao
Mindanao
and the smaller islands surrounding it make up the island group of the same name. As of the 2010 census, the main island was inhabited by 20,281,545 people, while the entire Mindanao
Mindanao
island group had a total of 21,968,174 residents. According to the 2015 Philippine Population Census, Davao City
Davao City
is the most populous city on the island, with a population of 1,632,991 residents, followed by Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
(pop. 861,799), Cagayan de Oro City (pop. 675,950), General Santos City
General Santos City
(pop. 594,446) and Iligan City (pop. 342,618). About 70% of residents identify as Christian, and 20% identify as Muslim
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Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands dispute Dangerous Ground (South China Sea) Great wall of sand History of the Spratly Islands List of maritime features in the Spratly Islands
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Pocdol Mountains
The POCDOL MOUNTAINS, also known as the BACON-MANITO VOLCANIC GROUP are a volcanic group of stratovolcanoes in the Philippines
Philippines
. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Physical features * 3 Eruptions * 4 Geology * 5 Listings * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links LOCATIONThe Pocdol Mountains
Pocdol Mountains
form part of the boundary between the provinces of Albay
Albay
and Sorsogon , in Region V, on the island of Luzon
Luzon
, in the Philippines. The group is located south-east of Mayon Volcano , between Albay
Albay
Gulf and Sorsogon Bay , at latitude 13.05°N (13°3'0"N), longitude 123.958°E (123°57'30"E). PHYSICAL FEATURESThe Pocdol Mountains
Pocdol Mountains
have a triangular footprint of about 225 square kilometres (87 sq mi)
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Davao City
DAVAO CITY (Cebuano : Dakbayan sa Dabaw, Filipino : Lungsod ng Dabaw) is the largest city in the Philippines
Philippines
in terms of land area and the most populous city in the country outside of Metro Manila
Metro Manila
and Luzon . A Highly Urbanized city on Mindanao Island with a total land area of 2,444 square kilometers, it has a population of 1,632,991 people based on the 2015 census. This figure also makes it the third-most-populous city in the Philippines
Philippines
and the most populous in Mindanao. It is the center of Metro Davao , the third most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines
Philippines
(as of 2015 census with a population of 2.5 million, after Metro Manila
Metro Manila
's 12.8 million and Metro Cebu 's 2.8 million)
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Diorite
DIORITE ( /ˈdaɪ.əˌraɪt/ ) is an intrusive igneous rock composed principally of the silicate minerals plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine ), biotite , hornblende , and/or pyroxene . The chemical composition of diorite is intermediate , between that of mafic gabbro and felsic granite . Diorite
Diorite
is usually grey to dark-grey in colour, but it can also be black or bluish-grey, and frequently has a greenish cast. It is distinguished from gabbro on the basis of the composition of the plagioclase species; the plagioclase in diorite is richer in sodium and poorer in calcium . Diorite
Diorite
may contain small amounts of quartz , microcline , and olivine . Zircon , apatite , titanite , magnetite , ilmenite , and sulfides occur as accessory minerals. Minor amounts of muscovite may also be present. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite
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Paleogene
The PALEOGENE ( /ˈpæliːədʒiːn/ or /ˈpeɪliːədʒiːn/ ; also spelled PALAEOGENE or PALæOGENE; informally LOWER TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Neogene
Neogene
Period 23.03 Mya. It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Paleogene is most notable for being the time during which mammals diversified from relatively small, simple forms into a large group of diverse animals in the wake of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
that ended the preceding Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period
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Late Miocene
The LATE MIOCENE (also known as UPPER MIOCENE) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch made up of two stages . The Tortonian and Messinian stages comprise the Late Miocene
Miocene
sub-epoch. The sub-epoch lasted from 11.608 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) to 5.332 ± 0.005 Ma
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Oligocene
The OLIGOCENE ( /ˈɒlᵻɡoʊsiːn/ ) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (7001339000000000000♠33.9±0.1 to 7014726771528000000♠23.03±0.05 Ma ). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain. The name Oligocene
Oligocene
comes from the Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (oligos, "few") and καινός (kainos, "new"), and refers to the sparsity of extant forms of molluscs . The Oligocene
Oligocene
is preceded by the Eocene
Eocene
Epoch and is followed by the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch. The Oligocene
Oligocene
is the third and final epoch of the Paleogene Period
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Surigao City
SURIGAO CITY (Tagalog pronunciation: ), officially the CITY OF SURIGAO (Filipino : Lungsod ng Surigao; Surigaonon : Siyudad nan Surigao; Cebuano : Dakbayan sa Surigao), is located at the north-easternmost tip of Mindanao
Mindanao
in the Philippines
Philippines
and the capital of the province of Surigao del Norte . It has a total land area of 245.34 km2 which is roughly 1.4% of Caraga region. According to the 2015 q39825, it has a population of 154,137 with an annual growth rate of 1.77% over the period 2010-2015. The absence of a fort in Surigao belies its significance and sphere of influence during the Spanish period. It was the capital of the expansive province of the same name from 1750 until its dissolution in 1911, covering a third of Mindanao
Mindanao
Island's total land area. It is one of the oldest port towns in Mindanao, founded by Spanish colonizers in 1655
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Adakite
ADAKITES are intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks that have geochemical characteristics of magma thought to have formed by partial melting of the altered basalt that is subducted below volcanic arcs . Most magmas derived in subduction zones come from the mantle above the subducting plate when hydrous fluids are released from minerals that break down in the metamorphosed basalt, rise into the mantle, and initiate partial melting. However, Defant and Drummond recognized that when young oceanic crust (less than 25 millions years old) is subducted, adakites are typically produced in the arc. They postulated that when young oceanic crust is subducted it is "warmer" (closer to the mid-ocean ridge where it formed) than crust that is typically subducted. The warmer crust enables melting of the metamorphosed subducted basalt rather than the mantle above
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Neogene
The NEOGENE ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/ ) (informally UPPER TERTIARY or LATE TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs , the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene
Pliocene
. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary . During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids , the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa
Africa
near the end of the period
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