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Philip II Of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon[2] (Greek: Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών, Phílippos II ho Makedṓn; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon
Macedon
from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third son of King Amyntas III of Macedon, and father of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Philip III. The rise of Macedon
Macedon
during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx
Macedonian phalanx
that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield
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Philip Of Macedon (other)
Philip was the name of several Macedonian monarchs: Philip I of Macedon
Philip I of Macedon
(ruled 640–602 BC) Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
(382–336 BC), ruled 359-336 BC, father of Alexander the Great Philip III of Macedon
Philip III of Macedon
(c. 359–317 BC), ruled 323-317 BC Philip IV of Macedon (died 297 BC) Philip V of Macedon
Philip V of Macedon
(238 BC - 179 BC), ruled 221–179 BCThis disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name
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Macedonian Phalanx
The Macedonian phalanx
Macedonian phalanx
is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
to conquer the Achaemenid Empire and other armies. Phalanxes remained dominant on battlefields throughout the Hellenistic period, although wars had developed into more protracted operations generally involving sieges and naval combat as much as pitched battles, until they were ultimately displaced by the Roman legions.Contents1 Development 2 Equipment 3 Formation 4 ReferencesDevelopment[edit]Fresco of an ancient Macedonian soldier wielding a spear and wearing a cap, from the tomb of Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki, Greece.Philip II spent much of his youth as a hostage at Thebes, where he studied under the renowned general Epaminondas, whose reforms were the basis for the phalanx
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Argead Dynasty
Basileus of Macedonia King of Persia King of Asia Pharaoh of Egypt Hegemon of the Hellenic LeagueReligion Ancient Greek ReligionEstate(s) MacedoniaDissolution 310 BCThe Argead dynasty
Argead dynasty
(Greek: Ἀργεάδαι, Argeádai) was an ancient Macedonian Greek royal house. They were the founders and the ruling dynasty of Macedon from about 700 to 310 BC. Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in Peloponnese, hence the name Argeads or Argives.[1][2][3] Initially the rulers of the homonymous tribe,[4] by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedonia all Upper Macedonian states
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Amyntas III Of Macedon
Amyntas III (Greek: Ἀμύντας Γ΄; died 370 BC) was king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon
Macedon
in 393 BC, and again from 392 to 370 BC. He was the son of Arrhidaeus and grandson of Amyntas, one of the sons of Alexander I.[1] His most famous son is Philip II, father of Alexander the Great. He is historically considered the founder of the unified Macedonian state.Contents1 Reign 2 Family 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksReign[edit] He came to the throne after the ten years of confusion which followed the death of Archelaus I. But he had many enemies at home; in 393 he was driven out by the Illyrians, but in the following year, with the aid of the Thessalians, he recovered his kingdom.[2] Medius, head of the house of the Aleuadae of Larissa, is believed to have provided aid to Amyntas in recovering his throne
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Eurydice I Of Macedon
In Greek mythology, Eurydice
Eurydice
(/jʊəˈrɪdɪsi/; Greek: Εὐρυδίκη, Eurydikē) was an oak nymph or one of the daughters of Apollo
Apollo
(the god of music, prophecy, and light, who also drove the sun chariot, "adopting" the power as god of the Sun from the primordial god Helios). She was the wife of Orpheus, who tried to bring her back from the dead with his enchanting music. Canonical story[edit] Eurydice
Eurydice
was the wife of Orpheus, who loved her dearly; on their wedding day, he played joyful songs as his bride danced through the meadow. One day, Aristaeus
Aristaeus
saw and pursued Eurydice, who stepped on a viper, was bitten, and died instantly
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Ancient Greek Religion
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices
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Macedonia (ancient Kingdom)
Macedonia (/ˌmæsɪˈdoʊniə/ ( listen)) or Macedon (/ˈmæsɪˌdɒn/; Greek: Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece,[4] and later the dominant state of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Greece.[5] The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties
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Pausanias Of Orestis
Pausanias of Orestis
Pausanias of Orestis
(Greek: Παυσανίας ἐκ τῆς Ὀρεστίδος) was a member of Philip II of Macedon's somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard. He assassinated Philip in 336 BC, possibly at the instigation of Philip's wife Olympias, or even his son Alexander the Great; he was quickly captured and killed. The most popular story explaining the murder comes from Diodorus Siculus, who expanded upon its mention by Aristotle. According to Diodorus, the general Attalus blamed Pausanias for the death of his friend. Philip and Pausanias had once been lovers, but the affair ended, and Philip started a new affair with Attalus' friend (also named Pausanias). The former Pausanias, feeling spurned, insulted his romantic rival in public. To secure his honor, Attalus' friend committed suicide by recklessly putting himself into danger in battle, while at the same time protecting the king
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List Of Macedonian Kings
Macedonian may refer to someone or something from or related to Macedonia, in any of several meanings of that term
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Rise Of Macedon
* indicates dates disputed by historiansThe rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of classical Greek affairs to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world
Hellenic world
(and beyond),[1] occurred in the span of just 25 years, between 359 and 336 BC. This ascendancy is largely attributable to the personality and policies of Philip II (r. 359–336 BC). In addition to utilising effective diplomacy and marriage alliances to achieve his political aims, Philip II was also responsible for reforming the ancient Macedonian army into an effective fighting force. The Macedonian phalanx
Macedonian phalanx
became the hallmark of the Macedonian army during his reign and the subsequent Hellenistic period. His army and engineers also made extensive use of siege engines. Macedonia during the reign of Philip II was at first preoccupied by wars with marauding Illyrians
Illyrians
and Thracians
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Ancient Macedonian Army
The army of the Kingdom of Macedonia was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world. It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon; previously the army of Macedon
Macedon
had been of little account in the politics of the Greek world, and Macedonia had been regarded as a second-rate power. The latest innovations in weapons and tactics were adopted and refined by Philip II, and he created a uniquely flexible and effective army. By introducing military service as a full-time occupation, Philip was able to drill his men regularly, ensuring unity and cohesion in his ranks. In a remarkably short time, this led to the creation of one of the finest military machines of the ancient world. Tactical improvements included the latest developments in the deployment of the traditional Greek phalanx made by men such as Epaminondas
Epaminondas
of Thebes and Iphicrates of Athens
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Classical Athens
The city of Athens
Athens
(Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai, modern pronunciation Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC)[1] was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League
Delian League
in the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
against Sparta
Sparta
and the Peloponnesian League. Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
following the tyranny of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War)
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Caranus (son Of Philip II)
Caranus (Greek: Κάρανος) was the son of Philip and a half-brother of Alexander the Great. It used to be thought that his mother was Cleopatra Eurydice, and that Caranus was therefore an infant at the time of his death. Cleopatra Eurydice bore Philip a female child, Europa, shortly before his death in October 336 BC. However, since the probable date for Philip and Cleopatra's marriage was spring 337 BC, this would mean that Cleopatra bore two children in 18-20 months. Whilst possible, this is unlikely. According to Justin,[1] Alexander had Caranus killed soon after his accession in 336 BC because he feared him. Alexander would have been more likely to fear a teenaged brother than an infant as a rival for the throne. It seems probable that Caranus was the son of one of Philip's other wives, either Phila or Philinna
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Thebes, Greece
Thebes (/θiːbz/; Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thēbai, Greek pronunciation: [tʰɛ̂ːbai̯];[2] Greek: Θήβα, Thíva [ˈθiva]) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece. It played an important role in Greek myths, as the site of the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus
Dionysus
and others. Archaeological excavations in and around Thebes have revealed a Mycenaean settlement and clay tablets written in the Linear B
Linear B
script, indicating the importance of the site in the Bronze Age. Thebes was the largest city of the ancient region of Boeotia
Boeotia
and was the leader of the Boeotian confederacy. It was a major rival of ancient Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion under Xerxes. Theban forces under the command of Epaminondas ended the power of Sparta
Sparta
at the Battle of Leuctra
Battle of Leuctra
in 371 BC
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