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Phased Array
In antenna theory, a phased array usually means an electronically scanned array; a computer-controlled array of antennas which creates a beam of radio waves which can be electronically steered to point in different directions, without moving the antennas.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] In an array antenna, the radio frequency current from the transmitter is fed to the individual antennas with the correct phase relationship so that the radio waves from the separate antennas add together to increase the radiation in a desired direction, while cancelling to suppress radiation in undesired directions. In a phased array, the power from the transmitter is fed to the antennas through devices called phase shifters, controlled by a computer system, which can alter the phase electronically, thus steering the beam of radio waves to a different direction
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Interference (wave Propagation)
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude. Interference usually refers to the interaction of waves that are correlated or coherent with each other, either because they come from the same source or because they have the same or nearly the same frequency
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Antony Hewish
Antony Hewish FRS FInstP[3] (born 11 May 1924) is a British radio astronomer who won the Nobel Prize for Physics
Nobel Prize for Physics
in 1974 (together with fellow radio-astronomer Martin Ryle[4]) for his role in the discovery of pulsars. He was also awarded the Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1969.[5][6][7]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career and research2.1 Awards and honours 2.2 Nobel Prize3 Personal life3.1 Religious views4 ReferencesEarly life and education[edit] He attended King's College, Taunton. His undergraduate degree at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, was interrupted by war service at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, and at the Telecommunications Research Establishment where he worked with Martin Ryle
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Sonar
Sonar
Sonar
(originally an acronym for SOund Navigation
Navigation
And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels. Two types of technology share the name "sonar": passive sonar is essentially listening for the sound made by vessels; active sonar is emitting pulses of sounds and listening for echoes. Sonar
Sonar
may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water. Acoustic location
Acoustic location
in air was used before the introduction of radar. Sonar
Sonar
may also be used in air for robot navigation, and SODAR
SODAR
(an upward looking in-air sonar) is used for atmospheric investigations
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Interferometry
Interferometry
Interferometry
is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.[1] Interferometry
Interferometry
is an important investigative technique in the fields of astronomy, fiber optics, engineering metrology, optical metrology, oceanography, seismology, spectroscopy (and its applications to chemistry), quantum mechanics, nuclear and particle physics, plasma physics, remote sensing, biomolecular interactions, surface profiling, microfluidics, mechanical stress/strain measurement, velocimetry, and optometry.[2]:1–2 Interferometers are widely used in science and industry for the measurement of small displacements, refractive index changes and surface irregularities. In an interferometer, light from a single source is split into two beams that travel different optical paths, then combined again to produce interference
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University Of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge
Cambridge
(informally Cambridge
Cambridge
University)[note 1] is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge
Cambridge
is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university.[8] The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
after a dispute with the townspeople.[9] The two medieval universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as "Oxbridge"
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Radio Receiver
In radio communications, a receiver (radio receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna. The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic waves) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information
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Martin Ryle
Sir Martin Ryle FRS[3] (27 September 1918 – 14 October 1984) was an English radio astronomer who developed revolutionary radio telescope systems (see e.g. aperture synthesis) and used them for accurate location and imaging of weak radio sources. In 1946 Ryle and Derek Vonberg were the first people to publish interferometric astronomical measurements at radio wavelengths. With improved equipment, Ryle observed the most distant known galaxies in the universe at that time. He was the first Professor of Radio Astronomy at the University of Cambridge, and founding director of the Mullard Radio Astronomy
Astronomy
Observatory
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Ferdinand Braun
Karl Ferdinand Braun
Ferdinand Braun
(6 June 1850 – 20 April 1918) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics. Braun contributed significantly to the development of radio and television technology: he shared with Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
the 1909 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics.Contents1 Biography 2 SID Karl Ferdinand Braun
Ferdinand Braun
Prize 3 Patents 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Braun was born in Fulda, Germany, and educated at the University of Marburg and received a Ph.D. from the University of Berlin
University of Berlin
in 1872
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F-22 Raptor
The Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation, single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
(USAF). The result of the USAF's Advanced Tactical Fighter
Advanced Tactical Fighter
program, the aircraft was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but also has ground attack, electronic warfare, and signal intelligence capabilities.[6] The prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, built most of the F-22's airframe and weapons systems and conducted final assembly, while Boeing
Boeing
provided the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems. The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 before it formally entered service in December 2005 as the F-22A
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Radio Astronomy
Radio astronomy
Radio astronomy
is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky
Karl Jansky
at Bell Telephone Laboratories observed radiation coming from the Milky Way. Subsequent observations have identified a number of different sources of radio emission. These include stars and galaxies, as well as entirely new classes of objects, such as radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, and masers. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, regarded as evidence for the Big Bang
Big Bang
theory, was made through radio astronomy. Radio astronomy
Radio astronomy
is conducted using large radio antennas referred to as radio telescopes, that are either used singularly, or with multiple linked telescopes utilizing the techniques of radio interferometry and aperture synthesis
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BMEWS
The RCA 474L Ballistic Missile Early Warning System
Ballistic Missile Early Warning System
(BMEWS, "474L System",[17] Project 474L) was a United States Air Force
United States Air Force
Cold War early warning radar, computer, and communications system,[18] for ballistic missile detection
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
(/ˈnoʊbɛl/, Swedish pronunciation: [nʊˈbɛl]; Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
established the prizes in 1895
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Karl Ferdinand Braun
Karl Ferdinand Braun
Ferdinand Braun
(6 June 1850 – 20 April 1918) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics. Braun contributed significantly to the development of radio and television technology: he shared with Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
the 1909 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics.Contents1 Biography 2 SID Karl Ferdinand Braun
Ferdinand Braun
Prize 3 Patents 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Braun was born in Fulda, Germany, and educated at the University of Marburg and received a Ph.D. from the University of Berlin
University of Berlin
in 1872
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Radio
Radio
Radio
is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.[n 1] When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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