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Pharusian Ocean
The Pharusian Ocean is an ancient ocean that existed from 800 to 635 million years ago, between the break-up of the Rodinia
Rodinia
supercontinent and the start of formation of the Gondwana
Gondwana
supercontinent.Contents1 Opening and closure 2 Southern extension 3 References 4 SourcesOpening and closure[edit] The Pharusian Ocean opened around 800 million years ago in the Neoproterozoic era after rifting along the eastern margin of the West African craton during the breakup of Rodinia
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Rodinia
Rodinia
Rodinia
(from the Russian родить, rodít, meaning "to beget, to give birth",[2] or родина", ródina, meaning "motherland, birthplace")[3][4] is a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that was assembled 1.3–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago.[5] Valentine & Moores 1970 were probably the first to recognise a Precambrian
Precambrian
supercontinent, which they named 'Pangaea I'.[5] It was renamed 'Rodinia' by McMenamin & McMenamin 1990 who also were the first to produce a reconstruction and propose a temporal framework for the supercontinent.[6] Rodinia
Rodinia
formed at c
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Suture Zone
In structural geology, a suture is a joining together along a major fault zone, of separate terranes, tectonic units that have different plate tectonic, metamorphic and paleogeographic histories. The suture is often represented on the surface by an orogen or mountain range. [1] The term was borrowed from surgery where it describes the sewing together of two pieces of tissue, but the sutures of the skull, where separate plates of bone have fused, may be a better metaphor. Overview[edit] In plate tectonics, sutures are seen as the remains of subduction zones, and the terranes that are joined together are interpreted as fragments of different paleocontinents or tectonic plates. Outcrops of sutures can vary in width from a few hundred meters to a couple of kilometers. They can be networks of mylonitic shear zones or brittle fault zones, but are usually both
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Palaeogeography
Palaeogeography
Palaeogeography
(or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes. Palaeogeography
Palaeogeography
can also include the study of human or cultural environments. When the focus is specifically on the study of landforms, the term paleogeomorphology is sometimes used instead. Paleogeography yields information that is crucial to scientific understanding in a variety of contexts. For example, paleogeographic analysis of sedimentary basins plays a key role in the field of petroleum geology, because the ancient geomorphological environments of the Earth's surface are preserved in the stratigraphic record. Paleogeographers also study the sedimentary environment associated with fossils for clues to the evolutionary development of extinct species
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Kandi Fault Zone
The Kandi fault zone is a southern extension of the Hoggar fault zone in West Africa, with splays in Benin, Togo
Togo
and southeastern Ghana. It lies at the southern end of the Trans Saharan belt, a lineament that extends in a southwest direction from Algeria
Algeria
to Benin
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Sobral Fault
The Sobral fault is a major fault in the Borborema geological province of northeastern Brazil, a part of the Transbrasiliano lineament. It is commonly correlated with the Kandi fault in Benin, east of the West African craton.[1] The fault lies in the northwest of Ceará
Ceará
state. It appears to have formed late in the orogeny when the West African craton engaged with the Congo craton, and to have allowed significant dextral strike-slip movement. It was reactivated when South America was breaking away from Africa.[2] In this later phase, a sinistral shear movement of about 100 km seems to have taken place during and after the break-up.[3] References[edit]^ Robert J. Pankhurst (2008). West Gondwana: pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic Region. Geological Society. p. 93. ISBN 1-86239-247-1.  ^ R. CABYl, A. N. SIAL2, M. ARTHAUD3,and A. VAUCHE (1991)
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Lineament
See also Line (geometry) A lineament is a linear feature in a landscape which is an expression of an underlying geological structure such as a fault. Typically a lineament will comprise a fault-aligned valley, a series of fault or fold-aligned hills, a straight coastline or indeed a combination of these features. Fracture zones, shear zones and igneous intrusions such as dykes can also give rise to lineaments. Lineaments are often apparent in geological or topographic maps and can appear obvious on aerial or satellite photographs. There are for example, several instances within Great Britain. In Scotland the Great Glen Fault and Highland Boundary Fault give rise to lineaments as does the Malvern Line in western England and the Neath Disturbance in South Wales. The term 'megalineament' has been used to describe such features on a continental scale
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Benin
Coordinates: 6°28′N 2°36′E / 6.467°N 2.600°E / 6.467; 2.600 Republic
Republic
of Benin République du Bénin  (French)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Fraternité, Justice, Travail" (French) "Fraternity, Justice, Labour"Anthem: L'Aube Nouvelle  (French) The Dawn of a New DayLocation of  Benin  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)Capital Porto-NovoaLargest city CotonouOfficial languages French
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Algeria
Coordinates: 28°N 2°E / 28°N 2°E / 28; 2People's Democratic Republic of Algeria الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic) ⵟⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴻⴳⴷⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵖⴻⵔⴼⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔⵉⵜ (Berber) République Algérienne Démocratique et Populaire (French)FlagEmblemMotto: بالشّعب وللشّعب By the people and for the people[1][2]Anthem: Kassaman (English: "We Pledge")Location of  Algeria  (dark green)Capital and largest city Algiers 36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.700°N 3.217°E / 36.700; 3.217Official languagesArabic[3] Berber[4]Other languagesFrench (business and education)[5] Darja
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Congo Craton
The Congo Craton, covered by the Palaeozoic-to-recent Congo Basin, is an ancient Precambrian
Precambrian
craton that with four others (the Kaapvaal, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, and West African cratons) makes up the modern continent of Africa. These cratons were formed between about 3.6 and 2.0 billion years ago and have been tectonically stable since that time. All of these cratons are bounded by younger fold belts formed between 2.0 billion and 300 million years ago. The Congo Craton
Craton
occupies a large part of central southern Africa, extending from the Kasai region of the DRC into Sudan
Sudan
and Angola. It forms parts of the countries of Gabon, Cameroon, and the Central African Republic
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Supercontinent
In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.[2][3] However, the definition of a supercontinent can be ambiguous. Many earth scientists use the term supercontinent to mean "a clustering of nearly all continents".[1] This definition leaves room for interpretation when labeling a continental body and is easier to apply to Precambrian
Precambrian
times.[4] Using the first definition provided here, Gondwana
Gondwana
is not considered a supercontinent, because the landmasses of Baltica, Laurentia
Laurentia
and Siberia also existed at the same time but physically separate from each other.[4] The landmass of Pangaea
Pangaea
is the collective name describing all of these continental masses when they were most recently near to one another. This would classify Pangaea
Pangaea
as a supercontinent
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Amazonian Craton
The Amazonian Craton
Craton
is a geologic province located in South America. It occupies a large portion of the central, north and eastern part of the continent. The Guiana Shield
Guiana Shield
and Central Brazil Shield (Guaporé Shield) constitutes respectively the northern and southern exhumed parts of the craton. Between the two shields lies the Amazon Rift, a zone of weakness within the craton
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Pan-African Orogeny
The Pan-African orogeny
Pan-African orogeny
was a series of major Neoproterozoic orogenic events which related to the formation of the supercontinents Gondwana and Pannotia
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Hoggar
The Hoggar Mountains
Hoggar Mountains
(Arabic: جبال هقار‎, Berber: idurar n Ahaggar, Tuareg: Idurar Uhaggar), also known as the Ahaggar Mountains, are a highland region in the central Sahara, southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer. The mountains cover an area of approximately 550,000 square km (212,000 square miles).[1]Contents1 Geography 2 Environment2.1 Fauna and flora3 Cultural significance 4 Panoramic view 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksGeography[edit]An oasis in the Hoggar MountainsThis mountainous region is located about 1,500 km (930 mi) south of the capital, Algiers. The area is largely rocky desert with an average elevation of more than 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level
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