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Pharusian Ocean
The PHARUSIAN OCEAN is an ancient ocean that existed from 800 to 635 million years ago, between the break-up of the Rodinia
Rodinia
supercontinent and the start of formation of the Gondwana
Gondwana
supercontinent. CONTENTS * 1 Opening and closure * 2 Southern extension * 3 References * 4 Sources OPENING AND CLOSUREThe Pharusian Ocean opened around 800 million years ago in the Neoproterozoic era after rifting along the eastern margin of the West African craton during the breakup of Rodinia
Rodinia
. The ocean began to close around 730 million years ago with eastward subduction of the Tilemsi arc, which was accreted against the Hoggar region of the Saharan Metacraton
Saharan Metacraton

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Lineament
See also Line (geometry) A LINEAMENT is a linear feature in a landscape which is an expression of an underlying geological structure such as a fault . Typically a lineament will comprise a fault-aligned valley, a series of fault or fold-aligned hills, a straight coastline or indeed a combination of these features. Fracture zones , shear zones and igneous intrusions such as dykes can also give rise to lineaments. Lineaments are often apparent in geological or topographic maps and can appear obvious on aerial or satellite photographs. There are for example, several instances within Great Britain . In Scotland the Great Glen Fault and Highland Boundary Fault give rise to lineaments as does the Malvern Line in western England and the Neath Disturbance in South Wales . The term 'megalineament' has been used to describe such features on a continental scale. The trace of the San Andreas Fault might be considered an example
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Benin
Coordinates : 6°28′N 2°36′E / 6.467°N 2.600°E / 6.467; 2.600 Republic
Republic
of Benin République du Bénin (French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Fraternité, Justice, Travail" (French) * "Fraternity, Justice, Labour" ANTHEM: * L\'Aube Nouvelle (French) * The Dawn of a New Day Location of Benin
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Algeria
Coordinates : 28°N 2°E / 28°N 2°E / 28; 2 People's Democratic Republic of Algeria الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية ( Arabic
Arabic
) ⵟⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴻⴳⴷⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵖⴻⵔⴼⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔⵉⵜ (Berber ) République démocratique populaire d'Algérie (French ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: بالشّعب وللشّعب By the people and for the people ANTHEM: Kassaman (English: "We Pledge")
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Suture Zone
In structural geology , a SUTURE is a joining together along a major fault zone, of separate terranes , tectonic units that have different plate tectonic , metamorphic and paleogeographic histories. The suture is often represented on the surface by an orogen or mountain range. The term was borrowed from surgery where it describes the sewing together of two pieces of tissue, but the sutures of the skull , where separate plates of bone have fused, may be a better metaphor. OVERVIEWIn plate tectonics, sutures are seen as the remains of subduction zones , and the terranes that are joined together are interpreted as fragments of different paleocontinents or tectonic plates . Outcrops of sutures can vary in width from a few hundred meters to a couple of kilometers . They can be networks of mylonitic shear zones or brittle fault zones, but are usually both
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Sobral Fault
The SOBRAL FAULT is a major fault in the Borborema geological province of northeastern Brazil
Brazil
, a part of the Transbrasiliano lineament . It is commonly correlated with the Kandi fault in Benin
Benin
, east of the West African craton
West African craton
. The fault lies in the northwest of Ceará
Ceará
state. It appears to have formed late in the orogeny when the West African craton
West African craton
engaged with the Congo craton , and to have allowed significant dextral strike-slip movement. It was reactivated when South America
South America
was breaking away from Africa
Africa
. In this later phase, a sinistral shear movement of about 100 km seems to have taken place during and after the break-up. REFERENCES * ^ Robert J. Pankhurst (2008)
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Kandi Fault Zone
The KANDI FAULT ZONE is a southern extension of the Hoggar fault zone in West Africa
West Africa
, with splays in Benin
Benin
, Togo
Togo
and southeastern Ghana
Ghana
. It lies at the southern end of the Trans Saharan belt, a lineament that extends in a southwest direction from Algeria
Algeria
to Benin
Benin
. The Kandi fault zone is identified with the Sobral fault
Sobral fault
in northeastern Brazil
Brazil
, considered to be the northern section of the Trans Brazilian Lineament . The Kandi fault is a band about 400 m thick of ultramylonites with shallow-plunging stretching lineations
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Palaeogeography
PALAEOGEOGRAPHY (or PALEOGEOGRAPHY) is the study of historical geography , generally physical landscapes . Palaeogeography
Palaeogeography
can also include the study of human or cultural environments. When the focus is specifically on the study of landforms , the term paleogeomorphology is sometimes used instead. Paleogeography yields information that is crucial to scientific understanding in a variety of contexts. For example, paleogeographic analysis of sedimentary basins plays a key role in the field of petroleum geology , because the ancient geomorphological environments of the Earth
Earth
's surface are preserved in the stratigraphic record. Paleogeographers also study the sedimentary environment associated with fossils for clues to the evolutionary development of extinct species
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Rodinia
RODINIA (from the Russian "Родина", ródina, meaning "The Motherland") is a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that was assembled 1.3–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago. Valentine & Moores 1970 were probably the first to recognise a Precambrian
Precambrian
supercontinent, which they named ' Pangaea
Pangaea
I'. It was renamed 'Rodinia' by McMenamin "> Rodinia
Rodinia
broke up in the Neoproterozoic with its continental fragments reassembled to form Pannotia
Pannotia
633–573 million years ago. In contrast with Pannotia, little is known yet about the exact configuration and geodynamic history of Rodinia
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Congo Craton
The CONGO CRATON, covered by the Palaeozoic
Palaeozoic
-to-recent Congo Basin
Congo Basin
, is an ancient Precambrian
Precambrian
craton that with four others (the Kaapvaal , Zimbabwe , Tanzania , and West African cratons) makes up the modern continent of Africa
Africa
. These cratons were formed between about 3.6 and 2.0 billion years ago and have been tectonically stable since that time. All of these cratons are bounded by younger fold belts formed between 2.0 billion and 300 million years ago. The Congo Craton
Craton
occupies a large part of central southern Africa, extending from the Kasai region of the DRC into Sudan
Sudan
and Angola
Angola
. It forms parts of the countries of Gabon
Gabon
, Cameroon
Cameroon
, and the Central African Republic
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Amazonian Craton
The AMAZONIAN CRATON is a geologic province located in South America . It occupies a large portion of the central, north and eastern part of the continent. The Guiana Shield and Central Brazil Shield (Guaporé Shield) constitutes respectively the northern and southern exhumed parts of the craton. Between the two shields lies the Amazon Rift
Rift
, a zone of weakness within the craton. Smaller cratons of Precambrian
Precambrian
rocks south of the Amazonian Shield are the Río de la Plata Craton
Craton
and the São Francisco Craton , which lies to the east. The Río Apa Craton
Craton
at the Paraguay
Paraguay
-Brazil border is considered be likely just the southern part of the Amazonian Craton. The rocks of Río Apa were deformed during the Sunsás orogeny
Sunsás orogeny

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Accretion (geology)
ACCRETION is a process by which material is added to a tectonic plate or a landmass . This material may be sediment, volcanic arcs , seamounts or other igneous features. DESCRIPTIONAccretion involves the addition of material to a tectonic plate. When two tectonic plates collide, one of the plates may slide under the other, a process known as subduction . The plate which is being subducted, is floating on the asthenosphere and is pushed against the other, over-riding plate. Sediment on the ocean floor will often be scraped from the subducting plate. This causes the sediment to accumulate as a mass of material called an accretionary wedge , which attaches itself to the upper plate. Volcanic island arcs or seamounts may collide with the continent, and as they are of relatively light material (i.e. low density) they will often not be subducted, but are added to the side of the continent
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West African Craton
The WEST AFRICAN CRATON is one of the five large masses, or cratons , of the Precambrian basement rock of Africa that make up the African Plate , the others being the Kalahari craton , Congo craton , Saharan Metacraton and Tanzania Craton . These land masses came together in the late Precambrian and early Palaeozoic eras to form the African continent. At one time, volcanic action around the rim of the craton may have contributed to a major global warming event. CONTENTS * 1 Location and composition * 2 Wanderings * 3 Snowball Earth * 4 Features * 4.1 Little Atlas Range and Atlas Mountains * 4.2 Saharan Basins * 4.3 Southern region * 5 References * 6 Further reading LOCATION AND COMPOSITIONThe craton appears to have formed when three Archean cratons fused: Leo-Man-Ghana, Taoudeni and Reguibat. The first two docked around 2.1 Ga (billion years ago), and the Reguibat Craton docked with the craton around 2 Ga
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Hoggar
The HOGGAR MOUNTAINS (Arabic : جبال هقار‎‎, Berber : idurar n Ahaggar, Tuareg : Idurar Uhaggar), also known as the AHAGGAR MOUNTAINS, are a highland region in the central Sahara , southern Algeria , along the Tropic of Cancer . The mountains cover an area of approximately 550,000 square km (212,000 square miles). CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Environment * 2.1 Fauna and flora * 3 Cultural significance * 4 Panoramic view * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links GEOGRAPHY An oasis in the Hoggar Mountains This mountainous region is located about 1,500 km (930 mi) south of the capital, Algiers . The area is largely rocky desert with an average elevation of more than 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level. The highest peak, Mount Tahat , is at 2,908 m (9,541 ft)
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