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Phanerozoic
The Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon[3] is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present,[4] and began with the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning visible life, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian, the first period of this eon
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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Fauna
Fauna
Fauna
is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the " Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert
fauna" or the " Burgess Shale
Burgess Shale
fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils
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Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics
(from the Late Latin
Late Latin
tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to building")[1] is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth
Earth
between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken into tectonic plates. The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates
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Phylum (biology)
In biology, a phylum (/ˈfaɪləm/; plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class. Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent.[1][2][3] Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia
Animalia
or Metazoa contains approximately 33 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae
Plantae
contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 8 phyla
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Earliest Known Life Forms
The earliest known life forms on Earth
Earth
are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates.[1] The earliest time that life forms first appeared on Earth
Earth
is unknown
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Mammal
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Huronian Glaciation
The Huronian glaciation (or Makganyene glaciation)[1] was a glaciation that extended from 2.4 billion years ago (Ga) to 2.1 Ga, during the Siderian
Siderian
and Rhyacian periods of the Paleoproterozoic era. The Huronian glaciation followed the Great Oxygenation Event
Great Oxygenation Event
(GOE), a time when increased atmospheric oxygen decreased atmospheric methane. The oxygen combined with the methane to form carbon dioxide and water, which do not retain heat as well as methane does. It is the oldest and longest ice age, occurring at a time when only simple, unicellular life existed on Earth
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Pangaea
Pangaea
Pangaea
or Pangea ( /pænˈdʒiːə/[1]) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and early Mesozoic
Mesozoic
eras.[2][3] It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago.[4] In contrast to the present Earth
Earth
and its distribution of continental mass, much of Pangaea
Pangaea
was in the southern hemisphere and surrounded by a superocean, Panthalassa
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Life
Life
Life
on Earth:Non-cellular life[note 1] [note 2]Viruses[note 3] ViroidsCellular lifeDomain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain EukaryaArchaeplastida SAR Excavata Amoebozoa OpisthokontaThis article is one of a series on: Life
Life
in the UniverseAstrobiologyHabitability in the Solar SystemHabitability of Venus Life
Life
on Earth Habitability of Mars Habitability of Enceladus Habitability of Europa Habitability of Titan Life
Life
outside the Solar SystemCircumstellar habitable zone Exoplanetology Planetary habitability SETIv t e Life
Life
is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate
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Evolution Of Photosynthesis
The evolution of photosynthesis refers to the origin and subsequent evolution of photosynthesis, the process by which light energy synthesizes sugars from carbon dioxide, releasing oxygen as a waste product. The first photosynthetic organisms probably evolved early in the evolutionary history of life and most likely used reducing agents such as hydrogen or electrons, rather than water.[1] There are three major metabolic pathways by which photosynthesis is carried out: C3 photosynthesis, C4 photosynthesis, and CAM photosynthesis
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Multicellular Organism
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.[1] All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells.[2] Colonial organisms are the result of many identical individuals joining together to form a colony
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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia
Animalia
or Fungi
Fungi
are sometimes grouped in the kingdom Protista.A eukaryote (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/) is any organism whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes ( Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea).[3][4][5] Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota
Eukaryota
or Eukarya. Their name comes from the Greek εὖ (eu, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (karyon, "nut" or "kernel").[6] Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts
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