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Phage Group
The phage group (sometimes called the American Phage Group) was an informal network of biologists centered on Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
that contributed heavily to bacterial genetics and the origins of molecular biology in the mid-20th century. The phage group takes its name from bacteriophages, the bacteria-infecting viruses that the group used as experimental model organisms. In addition to Delbrück, important scientists associated with the phage group include: Salvador Luria, Alfred Hershey, Seymour Benzer, Gunther Stent, James D
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Max Delbrück
Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück, ForMemRS[3] (September 4, 1906 – March 9, 1981), a German–American biophysicist, helped launch the molecular biology research program in the late 1930s. He stimulated physical scientists' interest into biology, especially as to basic research to physically explain genes, mysterious at the time. Formed in 1945 and led by Delbrück along with Salvador Luria and Alfred Hershey, the Phage Group made substantial headway unraveling important aspects of genetics. The three shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses".[5] He was the first physicist to predict what is now called Delbrück scattering.[6][7][8]Contents1 Early and personal life 2 Education 3 Career and research 4 Awards and honours 5 Later life and legacy 6 References 7 External linksEarly and personal life[edit] Delbrück was born in Berlin, German Empire
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Restriction Enzyme
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA
DNA
into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.[1][2][3] Restriction enzymes are commonly classified into five types, which differ in their structure and whether they cut their DNA
DNA
substrate at their recognition site, or if the recognition and cleavage sites are separate from one another. To cut DNA, all restriction enzymes make two incisions, once through each sugar-phosphate backbone (i.e
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Hershey–Chase Experiment
The Hershey–Chase experiments were a series of experiments conducted in 1952[1] by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase that helped to confirm that DNA is genetic material. While DNA had been known to biologists since 1869,[2] many scientists still assumed at the time that proteins carried the information for inheritance because DNA appeared simpler than proteins. In their experiments, Hershey and Chase showed that when bacteriophages, which are composed of DNA and protein, infect bacteria, their DNA enters the host bacterial cell, but most of their protein does not
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Homologous Recombination
Homologous recombination
Homologous recombination
is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA. It is most widely used by cells to accurately repair harmful breaks that occur on both strands of DNA, known as double-strand breaks (DSB)
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James Watson
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA
DNA
in 1953 with Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and Rosalind Franklin. Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material". Watson earned degrees at the University of Chicago
Chicago
(BS, 1947) and Indiana University
Indiana University
(PhD, 1950)
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Genetic Recombination
Genetic recombination
Genetic recombination
(aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent. In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from the parents to the offspring. Most recombination is naturally occurring. During meiosis in eukaryotes, genetic recombination involves the pairing of homologous chromosomes. This may be followed by information transfer between the chromosomes
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DNA Repair
DNA
DNA
repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA
DNA
molecules that encode its genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA
DNA
damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day.[1] Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA
DNA
molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA
DNA
encodes. Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a consequence, the DNA
DNA
repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA
DNA
structure
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Niels Bohr
Niels Henrik David Bohr (Danish: [nels ˈboɐ̯ˀ]; 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1922. Bohr was also a philosopher and a promoter of scientific research. Bohr developed the Bohr model
Bohr model
of the atom, in which he proposed that energy levels of electrons are discrete and that the electrons revolve in stable orbits around the atomic nucleus but can jump from one energy level (or orbit) to another. Although the Bohr model
Bohr model
has been supplanted by other models, its underlying principles remain valid. He conceived the principle of complementarity: that items could be separately analysed in terms of contradictory properties, like behaving as a wave or a stream of particles
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Meselson–Stahl Experiment
The Meselson–Stahl experiment is an experiment by Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl in 1958 which supported Watson and Crick's hypothesis that DNA replication was semiconservative. In semiconservative replication, when the double stranded DNA helix is replicated, each of the two new double-stranded DNA helices consisted of one strand from the original helix and one newly synthesized. It has been called "the most beautiful experiment in biology."[1] Meselson and Stahl decided the best way to tag the parent DNA would be to change one of the atoms in the parent DNA molecule. Since nitrogen is found in the nitrogenous bases of each nucleotide, they decided to use an isotope of nitrogen to distinguish between parent and newly copied DNA
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Werner Arber
Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau)[1] is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. Along with American researchers Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction endonucleases. Their work would lead to the development of recombinant DNA technology.Contents1 Life and career 2 Personal life 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksLife and career[edit]Letters from Daisy Dussoix in 1978 where she expresses her frustration about the lack of recognition of her research which led Werner Arber to obtain the Nobel prizeArber studied chemistry and physics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich from 1949 to 1953. Late in 1953, he took an assistantship for electron microscopy at the University of Geneva, in time left the electron microscope, went on to research bacteriophages and write his dissertation on defective lambda prophage mutants
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SOS Response
The SOS response is a global response to DNA damage in which the cell cycle is arrested and DNA repair and mutagenesis are induced. The system involves the RecA protein (Rad51 in eukaryotes). The RecA protein, stimulated by single-stranded DNA, is involved in the inactivation of the LexA (repressor of SOS response genes) thereby inducing the response. It is an error-prone repair system that is attributed to mutagenesis.Contents1 Discovery 2 Mechanism 3 Antibiotic resistance 4 Genotoxicity testing 5 See also 6 ReferencesDiscovery[edit] The SOS response was discovered and named by Miroslav Radman in 1975.[2] Mechanism[edit] During normal growth, the SOS genes are negatively regulated by LexA repressor protein dimers. Under normal conditions, LexA binds to a 20-bp consensus sequence (the SOS box) in the operator region for those genes. Some of these SOS genes are expressed at certain levels even in the repressed state, according to the affinity of LexA for their SOS box
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Nobel Prize In Physiology Or Medicine
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology
Physiology
or Medicine
Medicine
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will. Nobel was personally interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for progress through scientific discoveries in laboratories. The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
is presented to the recipient(s) at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal provides the same profile of Alfred Nobel as depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature; its reverse side is unique to this medal
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Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
(CSHL) is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, neuroscience, plant genetics, genomics, and quantitative biology.[2] It is one of 68 institutions supported by the Cancer Centers Program of the U.S. National Cancer Institute
National Cancer Institute
(NCI) and has been an NCI-designated Cancer Center
NCI-designated Cancer Center
since 1987.[3] The Laboratory is one of a handful of institutions that played a central role in the development of molecular genetics and molecular biology.[4] It has been home to eight scientists who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
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Molecular Biology
Molecular biology
Molecular biology
/məˈlɛkjʊlər/ is a branch of biochemistry which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.[1] Writing in Nature in 1961, William Astbury described molecular biology as:"...not so much a technique as an approach, an approach from the viewpoint of the so-called basic sciences with the leading idea of searching below the large-scale manifestations of classical biology for the corresponding molecular plan. It is concerned particularly with the forms of biological molecules and [...] is predominantly three-dimensional and structural—which does not mean, however, that it is merely a refinement of morphology
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Richard Feynman
Richard Phillips Feynman (/ˈfaɪnmən/; May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman, jointly with Julian Schwinger
Julian Schwinger
and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1965. Feynman developed a widely used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions governing the behavior of subatomic particles, which later became known as Feynman diagrams. During his lifetime, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world
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