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Peter Tolstoy
Count
Count
Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy
Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy
(Russian: Пётр Андреевич Толстой) (1645–1729) was a Russian statesman and diplomat, prominent during and after the reign of Peter the Great. He was the ancestor of all the Counts Tolstoy, including the novelist Leo Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28], 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7], 1910) and Alexei Tolstoy the writer. His wife was Solomonic Timofeevna Dubrovskaya born 1660 and died 1722; he had two sons with her, Ivan (born 1685) and Peter (born 1680). Both his sons died in exile with him the year before his own death
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Count
Count
Count
(male) or countess (female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.[1] The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin
Latin
comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning “companion”, and later “companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor”. The adjective form of the word is "comital". The British and Irish equivalent is an earl (whose wife is a "countess", for lack of an English term)
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Spanish Succession War
The Grand Alliance Holy Roman Empire Austria  Prussia Spain
Spain
loyal to Charles Crown of Aragon Great Britain [a]  Dutch Republic  Portugal  SavoyBourbon France and Spain  France Philip V Bavaria
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Extradition
Extradition
Extradition
is the act by one jurisdiction of delivering a person who has been accused of committing a crime in another jurisdiction or has been convicted of a crime in that other jurisdiction into the custody of a law enforcement agency of that other jurisdiction. It is a cooperative law enforcement process between the two jurisdictions and depends on the arrangements made between them. Besides the legal aspects of the process, extradition also involves the physical transfer of custody of the person being extradited to the legal authority of the requesting jurisdiction.[1] Through the extradition process, one sovereign jurisdiction typically makes a formal request to another sovereign jurisdiction ("the requested state")
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Governing Senate
The Governing Senate
Governing Senate
(Правительствующий сенат) was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of the Russian Emperors, instituted by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma
Duma
and lasted until the very end of the Russian Empire. It was chaired by the Procurator General, who served as the link between the sovereign and the Senate; he acted, in the emperor's own words, as "the sovereign's eye". Originally established only for the time of Peter's absence, it became a permanent body after his return. The number of senators was first set at nine and, in 1712, increased to ten. Any disagreements between the Chief Procurator and the Senate were to be settled by the monarch. Certain other officials and a chancellery were also attached to the Senate
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Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov
Great Northern WarBattle of Praga Battle of Kalisz Battle of Holowczyn Battle of Lesnaya Battle of Poltava Surrender at Perevolochna Prince
Prince
Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Дани́лович Ме́ншиков; 16 November [O.S. 6 November] 1673 – 23 November [O.S. 12 November] 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimus, Prince
Prince
of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and Duke of Izhora (Duke of Ingria), Prince
Prince
of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel
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Alexei Petrovich, Tsarevich Of Russia
Tsarevich[1] (Russian: Царе́вич, IPA: [tsɐˈrʲevʲɪtɕ]) is a Slavic title given to tsars' sons. Under the 1797 Pauline house law, the title was discontinued and replaced with Tsesarevich
Tsesarevich
for the heir apparent alone. His younger brothers were called Velikiy Knjaz, meaning Grand Prince, although it was commonly translated to English as Grand Duke. English sources often confused the terms Tsarevich
Tsarevich
and Tsesarevich. Alexei Nikolaevich, the only son of Nicholas II, was the last member of Russian royalty to be called Tsarevich
Tsarevich
even though he was the Tsesarevich. In olden times, the term was also applied to descendants of the khans (tsars) of Kazan, Kasimov, and Siberia after these khanates had been conquered by Russia. See Tsareviches of Siberia, for example
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Naples
Naples
Naples
(/ˈneɪpəlz/; Italian: Napoli [ˈnaːpoli] ( listen), Neapolitan: Napule [ˈnɑːpələ] or [ˈnɑːpulə]; Latin: Neapolis; Ancient Greek: Νεάπολις, meaning "new city") is the capital of the Italian region Campania
Campania
and the third-largest municipality in Italy
Italy
after Rome
Rome
and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits. The Metropolitan City of Naples
Metropolitan City of Naples
had a population of 3,115,320
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Tsarevich
Tsarevich[1] (Russian: Царе́вич, IPA: [tsɐˈrʲevʲɪtɕ]) is a Slavic title given to tsars' sons. Under the 1797 Pauline house law, the title was discontinued and replaced with Tsesarevich
Tsesarevich
for the heir apparent alone. His younger brothers were called Velikiy Knjaz, meaning Grand Prince, although it was commonly translated to English as Grand Duke. English sources often confused the terms Tsarevich
Tsarevich
and Tsesarevich. Alexei Nikolaevich, the only son of Nicholas II, was the last member of Russian royalty to be called Tsarevich
Tsarevich
even though he was the Tsesarevich. In olden times, the term was also applied to descendants of the khans (tsars) of Kazan, Kasimov, and Siberia after these khanates had been conquered by Russia. See Tsareviches of Siberia, for example
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Charlotte Christine Of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Charlotte Christine Sophie also known as Sophie Charlotte or simply Charlotte (28 August 1694, Wolfenbüttel
Wolfenbüttel
– 2 November 1715, Saint Petersburg), was the wife of Tsarevich Alexei
Tsarevich Alexei
Petrovich of Russia. She was the daughter of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen. She was also the great aunt of Queen Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
of France. Biography[edit] Charlotte Christine was brought up at the court of the Polish King August II, whose consort Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth was her distant kinswoman and also her godmother. She received a good education for that time period. In late 1709, Tsar Peter I of Russia
Russia
sent his son Alexei to Dresden
Dresden
to finish his education
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Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
(historically Romanorum Imperator " Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(800-1806 CE, from Charlemagne
Charlemagne
to Francis II). The title was almost without interruption held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany.[1][2][3] From an autocracy in Carolingian
Carolingian
times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right by Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
rulers in Europe, and he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs
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Charles VI Of Austria
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; German: Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria
Archduke of Austria
(as Charles III) in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain following the death of his relative, Charles II, in 1700. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands. Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, faced with his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. The Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I
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Torgau
Torgau
Torgau
is a town on the banks of the Elbe
Elbe
in northwestern Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district Nordsachsen. Outside Germany, the town is best known as the place where, on 25 April 1945, US and Soviet forces first met near the end of the Second World War.Contents1 Sights 2 History2.1 World War II 2.2 Post–World War II 2.3 Mayors of Torgau
Torgau
(1359-1600)3 Population development 4 Gallery 5 Notable Residents 6 References 7 External links7.1 MultimediaSights[edit] Sights include the historic town centre, restored since the unification, a brewery museum, the monument for the meeting of the Russian and American troops on the Elbe
Elbe
and a Russian military cemetery
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (
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Peter II Of Russia
Peter II Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич, Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (23 October [O.S. 12 October] 1715 – 30 January [O.S. 19 January] 1730) reigned as Emperor
Emperor
of Russia from 1727 until his death. He was the only son of Tsarevich
Tsarevich
Alexei Petrovich (son of Peter I of Russia
Peter I of Russia
by his first consort Eudoxia Lopukhina) and of Princess Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg.Contents1 Early life 2 Reign 3 Ancestry 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 External links 7 ReferencesEarly life[edit]The birth of Peter II of Russia, by Peter Schenk (1715)Peter was born in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
on 23 (O.S. 12) October 1715. His mother died when he was only ten days old. His father, Prince Alexis, accused of treason by his own father, Peter the Great, died in prison in 1718
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