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Peshwa
A PESHWA was the equivalent of a modern Prime Minister
Prime Minister
in the Maratha Empire . Originally, the Peshwas served as subordinates to the Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
(the Maratha
Maratha
king), but later, they became the de facto leaders of the Marathas, and the Chatrapati was reduced to a nominal ruler. During the last years of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire, the Peshwas themselves were reduced to titular leaders, and remained under the authority of the Maratha
Maratha
nobles and the British East India Company
British East India Company

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Indian Subcontinent
The INDIAN SUBCONTINENT or the SUBCONTINENT is a southern region of Asia
Asia
, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas
Himalayas
. Geologically , the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically , it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas
Himalayas
in the north, the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
in the west, and the Arakanese in the east
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Mughals
The MUGHAL EMPIRE ( Urdu
Urdu
: مغلیہ سلطنت‎, translit. Mughliyah Salṭanat) or MOGUL EMPIRE, self-designated as GURKANI (Persian : گورکانیان‎‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim
Muslim
dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia
Central Asia
, but with significant Indian Rajput
Rajput
and Persian admixture through marriage alliances. The dynasty was Persianate in culture, with local influences visible in its traits and customs
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Adnyapatra
ADNYAPATRA, also pronounced as ‘AJNAPATRA’, is a royal edict on the principles of Maratha
Maratha
policy written in Modi Marathi by Ramchandra Pant Amatya , a diplomat and warrior of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire , with intention to guide Shivaji
Shivaji
’s grandson Sambhaji II . It is supposed to be the formal documentation of Shivaji
Shivaji
’s ideals, principles and policies of state administration. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Contents * 3 Chapters * 4 Select Principles * 5 Comparison * 6 Controversy * 7 Refutation * 8 References BACKGROUNDIn the strict sense, Adnyapatra is not an official document as it does not bear any seal or other traditional signs used to denote the beginning and end of the official document
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India
India
: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India
India
: Nepal
Nepal
: 1,669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari
Devanagari
(official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts

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Kulkarni
KULKARNI is a Brahmin
Brahmin
family name native to the Indian state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and northern Karnataka
Karnataka
. The name Kulkarni
Kulkarni
is believed to be a combination of two words (kula and karani). Kula means the root of the family, and Karanika means one who maintains records or accounts . Traditionally, Kulkarni
Kulkarni
was a title used for people who used to maintain the accounts and records of the villages and used to collect taxes. The title of the Kulkarni
Kulkarni
was later replaced by the Talathi . The Pargana and Kulkarni
Kulkarni
Watans were abolished in 1950
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Official Residence
An OFFICIAL RESIDENCE is the residence at which a nation's head of state , head of government , governor or other senior figure officially resides. It may or may not be the same location where the individual conducts work-related functions or lives
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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی fārsi ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958), and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
Iran
. It is written in the Persian alphabet , a modified variant of the Arabic script
Arabic script

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British Empire
The BRITISH EMPIRE comprised the dominions , colonies , protectorates , mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England
England
between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power . By 1913, the British Empire
Empire
held sway over 412 million people, 7001230000000000000♠23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 7001240000000000000♠24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal , linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread
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British East India Company
The EAST INDIA COMPANY (EIC), also known as the HONOURABLE EAST INDIA COMPANY (HEIC) or the BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY and informally as JOHN COMPANY, was an English and later British joint-stock company , which was formed to pursue trade with the " East Indies " (or Maritime Southeast Asia in present-day terms) but ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and Qing China
Qing China
. The historian William Dalrymple says: It was not the British government that seized India at the end of the 18th century, but a dangerously unregulated private company headquartered in one small office, five windows wide, in London, and managed in India by an unstable sociopath – Clive
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Panhala
PANHALA is a city and a Hill station Municipal Council (3177 feet above sea level) 18 km northwest of Kolhapur
Kolhapur
, in Kolhapur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
. Panhala
Panhala
is the smallest city in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and being a Municipal Council the city is developing rapidly. The city sprawls in the Panhala fort commands a panoramic view of the valley below. The main historical attraction here is the Panhala
Panhala
fort. There are many places of interest, each with its share of haunting anecdotes
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Senapati
SENAPATI ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: सेनापति sena- meaning "army", -pati meaning "lord") was a hereditary title of nobility used in the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
. During wartime, a Sardar Senapati or Sarsenapati (also colloquially termed Sarnaubat) functioned as the Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of all Maratha
Maratha
forces, coordinating the commands of the various Sardars in battle. Ranking under the heir-apparent crown prince and other hereditary princes , the title Senapati most closely resembles a British Duke
Duke
or German Herzog
Herzog
in rank and function. On occasion, the title Mahasenapati ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: महा maha- meaning "great") was granted; this best equates to a Grand Duke
Duke
or a German Großherzog
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Hereditary
HEREDITY is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction ; the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. Through heredity, variations between individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection . The study of heredity in biology is called genetics , which includes the field of epigenetics . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Relation to theory of evolution * 3 History * 3.1 Gregor Mendel: father of genetics * 3.2 Modern development of genetics and heredity * 3.3 Common genetic disorders * 4 Types * 4.1 Dominant and recessive alleles * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEW Heredity of phenotypic traits: Father and son with prominent ears and crowns. DNA structure. Bases are in the centre, surrounded by phosphate–sugar chains in a double helix
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Afghanistan
Coordinates : 33°N 65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan * د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت ( Pashto
Pashto
) * Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat * جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان (Dari ) * Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh Afġānestān Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله "Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh" "There is no god but God; Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God
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Bombay State
BOMBAY STATE was a large Indian state created at the time of India\'s Independence , with other regions being added to it in the succeeding years. Bombay
Bombay
Presidency (roughly equating to the present-day Indian state of Maharashtra, excluding South Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Vidarbha
Vidarbha
) was merged with the princely states of the Baroda, Western India
India
and Gujarat
Gujarat
(the present-day Indian state of Gujarat
Gujarat
) and Deccan States (which included parts of the present-day Indian states of Maharashtra and Karnataka
Karnataka
. On November 1, 1956, Bombay
Bombay
State was re-organized under the States Reorganisation Act on linguistic lines, absorbing various territories including the Saurashtra and Kutch States, which ceased to exist
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Prime Minister
A PRIME MINISTER is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government , often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system . In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state . In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system
Westminster system
, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch
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