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Personal Union
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.[1] A real union, by contrast, will involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.[2] Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries; the King
King
of one country inherits the crown of another country) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings)
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Hypostatic Union
Hypostatic union
Hypostatic union
(from the Greek: ὑπόστασις hypóstasis, "sediment, foundation, substance, subsistence") is a technical term in Christian theology
Christian theology
employed in mainstream Christology
Christology
to describe the union of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis, or individual existence.[3] The most basic explanation for the hypostatic union is Jesus
Jesus
Christ being both God, and man
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Wenceslas II
Wenceslaus II Přemyslid (Czech: Václav II.; Polish: Wacław II Czeski; 27 September[2] 1271 – 21 June 1305) was King of Bohemia (1278–1305), Duke of Cracow (1291–1305), and King of Poland (1300–1305). He was the only son of King Ottokar II of Bohemia and Ottokar's second wife Kunigunda.[3] He was born in 1271, ten years after the marriage of his parents. Kunigunda was the daughter of Rostislav Mikhailovich, lord of Slavonia, son of a Grand Prince of Kiev, and Anna of Hungary, daughter of Béla IV of Hungary. His great-grandfather was the German king Philip of Swabia. Wenceslaus II was the grandfather of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV
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Duchy Of Venetia
The Republic of Venice
Venice
(Italian: Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Venetian: Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance. The Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy
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Kingdom Of Slavonia
The Kingdom of Slavonia
Slavonia
(Croatian: Kraljevina Slavonija; German: Königreich Slawonien; Latin: Regnum Sclavoniae; Hungarian: Szlavón Királyság) was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and the Austrian Empire that existed from 1699 to 1868. The province included northern parts of present-day regions of Slavonia
Slavonia
(today in Croatia) and Syrmia (today in Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia)
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Kingdom Of Serbia (1718–39)
The Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
(Serbian: Краљевина Србија/Kraljevina Srbija; German: Königreich Serbien; Latin: Regnum Serviae) was a province (crownland) of the Habsburg monarchy from 1718 to 1739. It was formed from the territories to the south of the rivers Sava
Sava
and Danube, corresponding to the Sanjak of Smederevo (or " Belgrade
Belgrade
Pashalik"), conquered by the Habsburgs from the Ottoman Empire in 1717
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Kingdom Of Galicia And Lodomeria
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
as a result of the First Partition of Poland
First Partition of Poland
in 1772, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule. From 1804 to 1918, it was a crownland of the Austrian Empire. After the reforms of 1867, it became an ethnic Pole-administered autonomous unit under the Austrian crown. The country was carved from the entire south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the many ceremonial titles of the princes of Hungary
Hungary
was "ruler of Galicia and Lodomeria". The name "Galicia" is the Latinized form of Halych, a principality of the medieval Ruthenia
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Duchy Of Bukovina
The Duchy of Bukovina
Bukovina
was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary
Austria–Hungary
from 1867 until 1918.Contents1 Name 2 History2.1 Austrian rule
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Kingdom Of Dalmatia
The Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(Croatian: Kraljevina Dalmacija; German: Königreich Dalmatien; Italian: Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1867–1918)
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Bosnia And Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina (/ˈbɒzniə ... ˌhɛərtsəɡoʊˈviːnə, -ˌhɜːrt-, -ɡə-/ ( listen) or /ˌhɜːrtsəˈɡɒvɪnə/;[10][11] abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) pronounced [bôsna i xěrtseɡoʋina]), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe
Europe
located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is the capital and largest city. It is bordered by Croatia
Croatia
to the north and west; Serbia
Serbia
to the east; Montenegro
Montenegro
to the southeast; and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to the south, with a coastline about 20 kilometres (12 miles) long surrounding the town of Neum
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Bohemia
Coordinates: 50°N 15°E / 50°N 15°E / 50; 15This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Wenceslas III
Wenceslaus III (Czech: Václav III., Hungarian: Vencel, Polish: Wacław, Slovak: Václav; 6 October 1289 – 4 August 1306) was King of Hungary between 1301 and 1305, and King of Bohemia and Poland from 1305. He was the son of Wenceslaus II, King of Bohemia, who was later also crowned king of Poland, and Judith of Habsburg. Still a child, Wenceslaus was betrothed to Elizabeth, the sole daughter of Andrew III of Hungary. After Andrew III's death in early 1301, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates elected Wenceslaus king, although Pope Boniface VIII supported another claimant, Charles Robert, a member of the royal house of the Kingdom of Naples. Wenceslaus was crowned king of Hungary on 27 August 1301. He signed his charters under the name Ladislaus in Hungary. His rule was only nominal, because a dozen powerful lords held sway over large territories in the kingdom
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Kingdom Of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia[nb 1] was a state in Southern Europe
Southern Europe
which existed from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. It was the predecessor state of the Kingdom of Italy.[7] Before it was acquired by the Duke of Savoy
Savoy
in 1720, it was a small Iberian state with weak institutions. However, the Savoyards united it with their possessions on the Italian mainland and, by the time of the Crimean War
Crimean War
in 1853, had built the resulting kingdom into a strong power
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Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
– 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany
King of Germany
from 1411, King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
from 1419, King of Italy
Italy
from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.[1] Sigismund von Luxembourg was the leader of the last West European Crusade - the Crusade of Nicopolis of 1396 to liberate Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and save Constantinople
Constantinople
from the Turks. Afterwards, he founded the Dragon Order to fight the Turks
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Albert Frederick, Duke Of Prussia
Albert Frederick (German: Albrecht Friedrich, Polish: Albrecht Fryderyk; 7 May 1553, in Königsberg
Königsberg
– 28 August 1618, in Fischhausen, Rybaki) was Duke of Prussia
Duke of Prussia
from 1568 until his death. He was a son of Albert of Prussia
Albert of Prussia
and Anna Marie of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He was the second and last Prussian duke of the Ansbach
Ansbach
branch of the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
family.Contents1 Duke of Prussia 2 Marriage 3 Issue 4 Ancestors 5 ReferencesDuke of Prussia[edit] Albert became Duke of Prussia
Duke of Prussia
after paying feudal homage to his cousin, the King of Poland, Zygmunt August, a descendent of Emperor Sigismund, on July 19, 1569 in Lublin.[1] The homage was described by the Polish chronicler Jan Kochanowski
Jan Kochanowski
in his work Proporzec ("Standard")
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John Sigismund, Elector Of Brandenburg
John Sigismund (German: Johann Sigismund; 8 November 1572 – 23 December 1619) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from the House of Hohenzollern. He became the Duke of Prussia through his marriage to Duchess Anna, the eldest daughter of Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia who died without sons. Their marriage resulted in the creation of Brandenburg-Prussia.Contents1 Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia 2 Religious policy 3 Family and children 4 Ancestry 5 References 6 External linksElector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia[edit]John Sigismund, Duke of PrussiaJohn Sigismund was born in Halle an der Saale to Joachim III Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, and his first wife Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin. He succeeded his father as Margrave of Brandenburg in 1608
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