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Persian Theater
Persian theater or Iranian theater (Persian:تئاتر در ایران) goes back to antiquity. The first initiation of theater and phenomena of acting can be traced in ceremonial theaters to glorify national heroes and legends and to humiliate the enemy, as in the classics "Soug Sivash" and "Mogh Koshi" (Megakhouni).[citation needed] Ancient Persian theatre
Persian theatre
and dance was significantly researched by the Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
of Halikarnassos, who lived during the Persian rule in Greece
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Persian Art
Persian art
Persian art
or Iranian art
Iranian art
has one of the richest art heritages in world history and has been strong in many media including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and sculpture. At different times, influences from the art of neighbouring civilizations have been very important, and latterly Persian art
Persian art
gave and received major influences as part of the wider styles of Islamic art. This article covers the art of Persia up to 1925, and the end of the Qajar dynasty; for later art see Iranian modern and contemporary art, and for traditional crafts see arts of Iran. Rock art in Iran
Rock art in Iran
is its most ancient surviving art
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Shahnameh
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama
Shahnama
(Persian: شاهنامه‎ pronounced [ʃɒːhnɒːˈme], "The Book
Book
of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran. Consisting of some 50,000 "distichs" or couplets (two-line verses),[1] the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is the world's longest epic poem written by a single poet. It tells mainly the mythical and to some extent the historical past of the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
from the creation of the world until the Islamic conquest of Persia
Islamic conquest of Persia
in the 7th century
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire
Empire
(/əˈkiːmənɪd/ c. 550–330 BC), also called the First Persian Empire,[11] was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army
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Drama
Drama
Drama
is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance; a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.[1] Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle's Poetics (c. 335 BC)—the earliest work of dramatic theory.[2] The term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action" (Classical Greek: δρᾶμα, drama), which is derived from "I do" (Classical Greek: δράω, drao). The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses, Thalia, and Melpomene
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Tazieh
Ta'zieh or Ta'zïye or Ta'zīya or Tazīa or Ta'ziyeh, (Arabic: تعزية‎, Persian: تعزیه‎, Urdu: تعزیہ‬‎) means comfort, condolence or expression of grief. It comes from roots aza (عزو and عزى) which means mourning. Depending on the region, time, occasion, religion, etc
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Five Martyrs Of Shia Islam
OthersMourning of Muharram Arba'een Pilgrimage IntercessionHoly citiesMecca Medina Najaf Karbala Mashhad Jerusalem Samarra Kadhimiya QomGroupsUsuli Akhbari Shaykhi Ni'matullāhī Safaviyya Qizilbash Alevism Alawism Bektashism and folk religion Malamatiyya–QalandariyyaHurufism–Bektashism Rifa'i–GalibiScholarshipLaw Marja' (list) Hawza Ayatollah (list) Allamah   Hujjat al-Islam IjtihadHadith collectionsPeak of Eloquence The Psalms of Islam Book of Fundamentals The Book in Scholar's LieuCivilization of Laws The CertaintyBook of Sulaym ibn Qays Oceans of Light Wasā'il al-Shīʿa Reality of Certainty Keys of ParadiseRelated topicsCriticism of Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ismRelated portalsShia Islam Ashurav t eThe five Martyrs (Arabic: الشھداء الخمسۃ‎) were five ulama of Shi'i Islam, living in different spans of history, who were executed by their respective regimes
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Nowruz
 Iran  Afghanistan  Albania[1][2]  Azerbaijan   China
China
(by Tajiks
Tajiks
and Turkic peoples)[3]  Georgia[4]  
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UNESCO
The United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO;[2] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
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Representative List Of The Intangible Cultural Heritage Of Humanity
UNESCO
UNESCO
established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.[1] This list is published by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and its members are elected by State parties meeting in UN General Assembly. Through a compendium of the different oral and intangible treasures of humankind worldwide, the program aims to draw attention to the importance of safeguarding intangible heritage, which UNESCO
UNESCO
has identified as an essential component and as a repository of cultural diversity and of creative expression.[2][3] The list was established in 2008 when the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage took effect. As of 2010[update] the programme compiles two lists
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Theater In The Round
A theatre in the round, arena theatre or central staging is a space for theatre in which the audience surrounds the stage. The Glenn Hughes Penthouse Theatre
Theatre
in Seattle, Washington was the first theatre-in-the-round venue built in the United States
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Tragedy
Tragedy
Tragedy
(from the Greek: τραγῳδία, tragōidia[a]) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.[2][3] While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilisation.[2][4] That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form; Hel
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Opera
Opera
Opera
(Italian: [ˈɔːpera]; English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere [ˈɔːpere]) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto) and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting.[1] In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style[2] and arias, a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera
Opera
incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance
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Ancient Iran
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia
Persia
in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt
Egypt
in the west to the borders of
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Qajar Dynasty
The Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
( listen (help·info); Persian: سلسله قاجار‬‎ Selsele-ye Qājār; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; Azerbaijani: قاجارلر‎ Qacarlar) was an Iranian[6] royal dynasty of Turkic origin,[7][8][9][10] specifically from the Qajar tribe, which ruled Persia
Persia
(Iran) from 1785 to 1925.[11][12] The state ruled by the dynasty was officially known as the Sublime State of Persia
Persia
(Persian: دولت علیّه ایران‎ Dolate Aliyye Iran). The Qajar family took full control of Iran
Iran
in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last Shah
Shah
of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus
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