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Persian Theater
PERSIAN THEATER or IRANIAN THEATER (Persian :تئاتر در ایران) goes back to antiquity . The first initiation of theater and phenomena of acting can be traced in ceremonial theaters to glorify national heroes and legends and to humiliate the enemy, as in the classics "Soug Sivash" and "Mogh Koshi" (Megakhouni). Ancient Persian theatre and dance was significantly researched by the Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
of Halikarnassos, who lived during the Persian rule in Greece. In his work Book IX (Calliope), he describes the history of Asian empires and also the Persian wars until 478 BC
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UNESCO
The UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO; French : Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
Paris
. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law , and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter . It is the successor of the League of Nations
League of Nations
' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation . UNESCO
UNESCO
has 195 member states and ten associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist
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Nowruz
Iran
Iran
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Albania
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Representative List Of The Intangible Cultural Heritage Of Humanity
UNESCO established its LISTS OF INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance. This list is published by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and its members are elected by State parties meeting in UN General Assembly . Through a compendium of the different oral and intangible treasures of humankind worldwide, the program aims to draw attention to the importance of safeguarding intangible heritage, which UNESCO has identified as an essential component and as a repository of cultural diversity and of creative expression. The list was established in 2008 when the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage took effect. As of 2010 the programme compiles two lists
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Theater In The Round
THEATRE-IN-THE-ROUND or ARENA THEATRE (also referred as CENTRAL STAGING) is any theatre space in which the audience surrounds the stage area. The Glenn Hughes Penthouse Theatre in Seattle, Washington was the first theatre-in-the-round venue built in the United States. It first opened on May 16, 1940 with a production of Spring Dance, a comedy by playwright Philip Barry . The 160-seat theatre is located on the campus of the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington, and is on the National Register of Historic Places . In 1947, Margo Jones established America's first professional theatre-in-the-round company when she opened her Theater '47 in Dallas
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Tragedy
TRAGEDY (from the Greek : τραγῳδία, tragōidia ) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilisation . That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans , in one cultural form; Hellenes and Christians , in a common activity," as Raymond Williams puts it
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Five Martyrs Of Shia Islam
Others * Mourning of Muharram * Arba\'een Pilgrimage * Intercession HOLY CITIES * Mecca * Medina * Najaf * Karbala * Mashhad * Jerusalem * Samarra * Kadhimiya * Qom GROUPS * Usuli * Akhbari * Shaykhi * Ni\'matullāhī * Safaviyya * Qizilbash * Alevism * Alawism * Bektashism and folk religion * Malamatiyya –Qalandariyya * Hurufism –Bektashism * Rifa\'i –Galibi SCHOLARSHIP * Law * Marja\' (list ) * Hawza * Ayatollah (list ) * Allamah * Hujjat al-Islam * Ijtihad HADITH COLLECTIONS * Peak of Eloquence * The Psalms of Islam * Book of Fundamentals * The Book in Scholar\'s Lieu * * Civilization of Laws * The Certainty * Book of Sulaym ibn Qays * Oceans of Light * Wasā\'il al-Shīʿa * Reality of Certainty * Keys of Paradise RELATED TOPICS * Criticism of Twelver Shi\'ism RELATED PORTALS


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Tazieh
TA\'ZIEH or TA\'ZïYE or TA\'ZīYA or TAZīA, (Arabic : تعزية‎‎, Persian : تعزیه‎‎, Urdu : تعزیہ‎) means comfort, condolence. It comes from roots aza (عزو and عزى) which means mourning. Depending on the region, time, occasion, religion, etc
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Persian People
The PERSIANS are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran
Iran
. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language
Persian language
, as well as closely related languages. The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed greatly to various forms of art , owning one of the world\'s most prominent literary traditions , and have made contributions in numerous other fields, including mathematics, theology, medicine, and various other sciences
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Herodotus
HERODOTUS (/hɪˈrɒdətəs/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek pronunciation: ) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
(modern-day Bodrum , Turkey
Turkey
) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides
Thucydides
, Socrates
Socrates
, and Euripides . He is often referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred by Cicero
Cicero
; he was the first historian known to have broken from Homeric tradition to treat historical subjects as a method of investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials systematically and critically, and then arranging them into a historiographic narrative
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires
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Drama
DRAMA is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance . Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle
Aristotle
's Poetics (c. 335 BC)—the earliest work of dramatic theory . The term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action " (Classical Greek : δρᾶμα, drama), which is derived from "I do" (Classical Greek : δράω, drao). The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy . They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses , Thalia , and Melpomene
Melpomene
. Thalia was the Muse of comedy (the laughing face), while Melpomene
Melpomene
was the Muse of tragedy (the weeping face)
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Shahnameh
The SHAHNAMEH, also transliterated as SHAHNAMA (Persian : شاهنامه‎‎ pronounced , "The Book
Book
of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran
Greater Iran
. Consisting of some 50,000 "distichs" or couplets (2-line verses), the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
is the world's longest epic poem written by a single poet. It tells mainly the mythical and to some extent the historical past of the Persian Empire from the creation of the world until the Islamic conquest of Persia
Persia
in the 7th century
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Opera
OPERA (Italian: ; English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere ) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto ) and musical score , usually in a theatrical setting . In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative , a speech-inflected style and arias , a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre , such as acting , scenery , and costumes and sometimes includes dance . The performance is typically given in an opera house , accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble , which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor . Opera
Opera
is a key part of the Western classical music tradition
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Bahram Beyzai
BAHRāM BEYZāIE (also spelt BAHRāM BEIZAI, BAHRāM BEYZAIE, Persian : بهرام بیضائی‎, born 26 December 1938) is a theatre and cinema director, as well as a screenwriter. Bahram Beyzaie was born into a prominent literary family, his father Ne'mat'ollāh Beyzāie and a number of his family were poets. Beyzai is often considered a follower of the Iranian New Wave who started to make films rather late in his life. Beyzaie began his career in the theater, writing plays and directing them. Since 2010, Beyzai has lived and worked at Stanford University , United States
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Rostam And Sohrab (opera)
ROSTAM AND SOHRAB is an opera by Loris Tjeknavorian . It is based on the story, Rostam and Sohrab in the epic Shahnameh . Its composition took 25 years. In 1963, Professor Carl Orff granted Loris Tjeknavorian a scholarship, which allowed him to reside in Salzburg and to complete his opera in Austria . Iranian director Behrouz Gharibpour brought to stage the puppet show "Rostam and Sohrab" based on the opera composed by Loris Tjeknovarian. Rostam and Sohrab puppet opera is the first puppet opera in Iran in which the tragic story of Rostam and Sohrab was displayed. The show involves 100 marionettes and 15 puppeteers. It was first performed in Tehran’s Ferdowsi Hall in 2005
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