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Persian Literature
Persian literature
Persian literature
(Persian: ادبیات فارسی‎ adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.[1][2][3] It spans two-and-a-half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Iraq, the Caucasus, and Turkey, regions of Central and South Asia
South Asia
where the Persian language
Persian language
has historically been either the native or official language. For instance, Mowlana Rumi, one of best-loved Persian poets born in Balkh
Balkh
or Vakhsh (in what is now Afghanistan), wrote in Persian and lived in Konya, then the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia
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Chinese Literature
The history of Chinese literature
Chinese literature
extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. The introduction of widespread woodblock printing during the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
(618–907) and the invention of movable type printing by Bi Sheng (990–1051) during the Song Dynasty (960–1279) rapidly spread written knowledge throughout China
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Literature
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature is writing considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature). The concept has changed meaning over time: nowadays it can broaden to have non-written verbal art forms, and thus it is difficult to agree on its origin, which can be paired with that of language or writing itself
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Ancient Greek Literature
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
literature refers to literature written in the Ancient Greek language
Greek language
from the earliest texts until around the time of the Byzantine Empire. The earliest surviving works of ancient Greek literature are the two epic poems The Iliad
The Iliad
and The Odyssey. These two epics, along with the Homeric Hymns and the two poems of Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
and Works and Days, comprised the major foundational works of the Greek literary tradition. The lyric poets Sappho, Alcaeus, and Pindar
Pindar
were highly influential during the early development of the Greek poetic tradition. Aeschylus is the earliest Greek tragic playwright for whom any plays have survived complete. Sophocles
Sophocles
is famous for his tragedies about Oedipus, particularly Oedipus
Oedipus
the King and Antigone
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Pali Literature
Pali
Pali
literature is concerned mainly with Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism, of which Pali
Pali
is the traditional language.Contents1 India 2 Sri Lanka 3 List of post-canonical Pali
Pali
texts 4 Burma 5 See also 6 External links 7 Further readingIndia[edit] Main article: Pali
Pali
Canon The earliest and most important Pali
Pali
literature constitutes the Pāli Canon, the scriptures of Theravada
Theravada
school. These are mainly of Indian origin, and were written down during the Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 29 BCE, approximately four hundred and fifty four years after the death of the Buddha.[citation needed] The Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
(Tripitaka) is divided into three pitakas (from Pali piṭaka, meaning "basket")
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Byzantine Literature
Byzantine literature
Byzantine literature
is the Greek literature
Greek literature
of the Middle Ages, whether written in the territory of the
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Visual Arts
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture. Many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts[1] are the applied arts[2] such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art.[3] Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement
Arts and Crafts Movement
in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media
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Armenian Literature
Armenian literature
Armenian literature
begins around AD 400 with the invention of the Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
by Mesrop Mashtots.Contents1 History1.1 Early literature 1.2 Medieval era 1.3 Religious literature 1.4 Cilician renaissance 1.5 Under foreign rule 1.6 Armenian troubadours2 19th century and early 20th century2.1 The Revivalists: Armenian Romanticists 2.2 Armenian Realists3 Under Soviet rule 4 Independent Armenia 5 See also 6 External links 7 ReferencesHistory[edit] Early literature[edit] Further information: Classical Armenian Only a handful of fragments have survived from the most ancient Armenian literary tradition preceding the Christianization of Armenia in the early 4th century due to centuries of concerted effort by the Armenian Church to eradicate the "pagan tradition"
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Art
Art
Art
is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.[1][2] In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including today painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media.
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Georgian Literature
The culture of Georgia has evolved over the country's long history, providing it with a unique national culture and a strong literary tradition based on the Georgian language
Georgian language
and alphabet
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Avesta
The Avesta
Avesta
/əˈvɛstə/ is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.[1] The Avesta
Avesta
texts fall into several different categories, arranged either by dialect, or by usage. The principal text in the liturgical group is the Yasna, which takes its name from the Yasna
Yasna
ceremony, Zoroastrianism's primary act of worship, and at which the Yasna
Yasna
text is recited
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Syriac Literature
Syriac literature
Syriac literature
is the literature written in Classical Syriac, the literary and liturgical language in Syriac Christianity. Early Syriac texts still date to the 2nd century, notably the Syriac Bible and the Diatesseron
Diatesseron
Gospel harmony. The bulk of Syriac literary production dates to between the 4th and 8th centuries. Syriac literacy survives into the 9th century, but Syriac Christian authors in this period increasingly write in Arabic
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Performance Art
Performance
Performance
art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance
Performance
may be either scripted or unscripted, random or carefully orchestrated; spontaneous or otherwise carefully planned with or without audience participation. The performance can be live or via media; the performer can be present or absent. It can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time, space, the performer's body, or presence in a medium, and a relationship between performer and audience. Performance art can happen anywhere, in any type of venue or setting and for any length of time
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Persian Calligraphy
Persian calligraphy
Persian calligraphy
(Persian:خوشنویسی فارسی) or Iranian calligraphy (Persian:خوشنویسی ایرانی) is the calligraphy of the Persian language. It is one of the most revered arts throughout history of Iran.Contents1 History1.1 History of Nasta'liq2 Contemporary Persian calligraphy2.1 Modernist movement 2.2 Post modernism 2.3 Genres3 Most notable figures 4 See also 5 External linksHistory[edit]Example showing Nastaʿlīq's proportion rules.[1]Further information: Nastaʿlīq History of Nasta'liq[edit] After the introduction of Islam in the 7th century, Persians adapted the Arabic alphabet to Persian and developed the contemporary Persian alphabet. The Arabic alphabet has 28 characters
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Decorative Art
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional. It includes interior design, but not usually architecture. The decorative arts are often categorized in opposition to the "fine arts", namely, painting, drawing, photography, and large-scale sculpture, which generally have no function other than to be seen.Contents1 "Decorative" and "fine" arts 2 Influence of different materials 3 Renaissance
Renaissance
attitudes 4 Arts and Crafts movement 5 See also 6 References and sources 7 Further reading 8 External links"Decorative" and "fine" arts[edit]Surahi, Mughal, 17th Century CE. National Museum, New DelhiThe distinction between the decorative and the fine arts has essentially arisen from the post- Renaissance
Renaissance
art of the West, where the distinction is for the most part meaningful
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Persian Pottery
Persian pottery
Persian pottery
or Iranian pottery refers to the pottery works made by the artists of Persia
Persia
(Iran) and its history goes back to early Neolithic Age
Neolithic Age
(7th millennium BCE).[1] Through the centuries, Persian potters have responded to the demands and changes brought by political turmoil by adopting and refining newly introduced forms and blending them into their own culture
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