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Persian Literature
PERSIAN LITERATURE (Persian : ادبیات فارسی‎‎ adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures . It spans two-and-a-half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran , Iraq , the Caucasus , and Turkey , regions of Central and South Asia where the Persian language has historically been either the native or official language. For instance, Mowlana Rumi , one of best-loved Persian poets, born in Balkh or Vakhsh (in what is now Afghanistan ), wrote in Persian, and lived in Konya , then the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia
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Syriac Literature
SYRIAC LITERATURE is the literature written in Classical Syriac , the literary and liturgical language in Syriac Christianity . Early Syriac texts still date to the 2nd century, notably the Syriac Bible and the Diatesseron Gospel harmony. The bulk of Syriac literary production dates to between the 4th and 8th centuries. Syriac literacy survives into the 9th century, but Syriac Christian authors in this period increasingly write in Arabic . The emergence of spoken Neo-Aramaic is conventionally dated to the 13th century, but there are a number of authors that continue to produce literary works in Syriac in the later medieval period, and literary Syriac (ܟܬܒܢܝܐ Kṯāḇānāyā) continues to be in use among members of the Syriac Orthodox Church
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Art
ART is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks ), expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts , which include creation of images or objects in fields including today painting, sculpture, printmaking , photography, and other visual media. Architecture
Architecture
is often included as one of the visual arts; however, like the decorative arts , or advertising, it involves the creation of objects where the practical considerations of use are essential—in a way that they usually are not in a painting, for example
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Georgian Literature
The CULTURE OF GEORGIA has evolved over the country's long history, providing it with a unique national culture and a strong literary tradition based on the Georgian language
Georgian language
and alphabet . This has provided a strong sense of national identity that has helped to preserve Georgian distinctiveness despite repeated periods of foreign occupation
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Chinese Literature
The history of CHINESE LITERATURE extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. The introduction of widespread woodblock printing during the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
(618–907) and the invention of movable type printing by Bi Sheng (990–1051) during the Song Dynasty (960–1279) rapidly spread written knowledge throughout China. In more modern times, the author Lu Xun (1881–1936) is considered the founder of baihua literature in China
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Byzantine Literature
BYZANTINE LITERATURE is the Greek literature
Greek literature
of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, whether written in the territory of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
or outside its borders. It forms the second period in the history of Greek literature after Ancient Greek literature
Greek literature
. Although popular Byzantine literature
Byzantine literature
and early Modern Greek literature
Greek literature
both began in the 11th century, the two are indistinguishable
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Avesta
The AVESTA /əˈvɛstə/ is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language. Collected during the Sassanid
Sassanid
Period of much more ancient oral accounts, according to Jean Kellens , "The book was originally given the name abestag, which the Parsees later turned into Avesta
Avesta
and which probably comes from the Old Iranian •upa-stavaka, 'praise (of Ahura Mazda)'.". The Avesta
Avesta
texts fall into several different categories, arranged either by dialect , or by usage. The principal text in the liturgical group is the Yasna , which takes its name from the Yasna ceremony, Zoroastrianism's primary act of worship, and at which the Yasna text is recited
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Pali Literature
PALI LITERATURE is concerned mainly with Theravada Buddhism , of which Pali is the traditional language. CONTENTS * 1 India * 2 Sri Lanka * 3 List of post-canonical Pali texts * 4 Burma * 5 See also * 6 External links * 7 Further reading INDIA Main article: Pali Canon The earliest and most important Pali literature constitutes the Pāli Canon , the scriptures of Theravada school. These are mainly of Indian origin, and were written down during the Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka in 29 BCE, approximately four hundred and fifty four years after the death of the Buddha. The Pāli Canon (Tripitaka) is divided into three pitakas (from Pali piṭaka, meaning "basket")
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Armenian Literature
ARMENIAN LITERATURE begins around AD 400 with the invention of the Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
by Mesrop Mashtots
Mesrop Mashtots
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early literature * 1.2 Medieval era * 1.3 Religious literature * 1.4 Cilician renaissance * 1.5 Under foreign rule * 1.6 Armenian troubadours * 2 19th century and early 20th century * 2.1 The Revivalists: Armenian Romanticists * 2.2 Armenian Realists * 3 Under Soviet rule * 4 Independent Armenia
Armenia
* 5 See also * 6 External links * 7 References HISTORYEARLY LITERATURE Further information: Classical Armenian
Classical Armenian
Only a handful of fragments have survived from the most ancient Armenian literary tradition preceding the Christianization of Armenia in the early 4th century due to centuries of concerted effort by the Armenian Church to eradicate the "pagan tradition"
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Literature
LITERATURE, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works . More restrictively, literature is writing considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature ). The concept has changed meaning over time: nowadays it can broaden to have non-written verbal art forms, and thus it is difficult to agree on its origin, which can be paired with that of language or writing itself. Developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature
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Performance Art
PERFORMANCE ART is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary . Performance
Performance
may be either scripted or unscripted, random or carefully orchestrated; spontaneous or otherwise carefully planned with or without audience participation. The performance can be live or via media; the performer can be present or absent. It can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time, space, the performer's body, or presence in a medium, and a relationship between performer and audience. Performance art can happen anywhere, in any type of venue or setting and for any length of time. The actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time constitute the work
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Decorative Art
The DECORATIVE ARTS are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional. It includes interior design , but not usually architecture . The decorative arts are often categorized in opposition to the "fine arts ", namely, painting , drawing , photography , and large-scale sculpture , which generally have no function other than to be seen. CONTENTS * 1 "Decorative" and "fine" arts * 2 Influence of different materials * 3 Renaissance
Renaissance
attitudes * 4 Arts and Crafts movement
Arts and Crafts movement
* 5 See also * 6 References and sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links "DECORATIVE" AND "FINE" ARTS Surahi, Mughal , 17th Century CE
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Persian Calligraphy
PERSIAN CALLIGRAPHY (Persian :خوشنویس فارسی) or IRANIAN CALLIGRAPHY (Persian :خوشنویسی ایرانی) is the calligraphy of the Persian language
Persian language
. It is one of the most revered arts throughout history of Iran . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 History of Nasta\'liq * 2 Contemporary Persian calligraphy
Persian calligraphy
* 2.1 Modernist movement * 2.2 Post modernism * 2.3 Genres * 3 Most notable figures * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORY Example showing Nastaʿlīq's proportion rules. Further information: Nastaʿlīq HISTORY OF NASTA\'LIQAfter the introduction of Islam in the 7th century, Persians adapted the Arabic alphabet to Persian and developed the contemporary Persian alphabet. The Arabic alphabet has 28 characters. An additional four letters were added by Iranians , which resulted in the 32 letters currently present in the Persian alphabet
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Visual Arts
The VISUAL ARTS are art forms such as ceramics , drawing , painting , sculpture , printmaking , design , crafts , photography , video , filmmaking , and architecture . Many artistic disciplines (performing arts , conceptual art , textile arts ) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design , graphic design , fashion design , interior design and decorative art . Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts , but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft , craft, or applied art media
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Iranian Cuisine
IRANIAN CUISINE, also widely referred to as PERSIAN CUISINE , includes the foods, cooking methods, and food traditions of Iran
Iran
. Iranian culinary styles have shared historical interactions with the cuisines of the neighboring regions, including Caucasian cuisine , abroad Kurdish cuisine
Kurdish cuisine
, Turkish cuisine
Turkish cuisine
, Levantine cuisine
Levantine cuisine
, Greek cuisine , Central Asian cuisine
Asian cuisine
, and Russian cuisine
Russian cuisine
. Through the Persianized Central Asian Mughal dynasty , aspects of Iranian cuisine were adopted into North Indian cuisine . Typical Iranian main dishes are combinations of rice with meat (such as lamb , chicken , or fish ), vegetables (such as onions and various herbs ), and nuts
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