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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی fārsi ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958), and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
Iran
. It is written in the Persian alphabet , a modified variant of the Arabic script
Arabic script

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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Росси́йская Федера́ция (Russian ) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii " (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Armeno-Tat
ARMENO-TATS (Armenian : հայ-թաթեր – hay-tater) are a distinct group of Tat -speaking Armenians
Armenians
that historically populated eastern parts of the South Caucasus . Most scholars researching the Tat language, such as Boris Miller and Igrar Aliyev , agree that Armeno-Tats
Armeno-Tats
are ethnic Armenians
Armenians
who underwent a language shift and adopted Tat as their first language. This is explained on one hand by the self-identification of Armeno-Tats
Armeno-Tats
who stated during Miller's research that they consider themselves Armenian as well as by some linguistic features of their dialect
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Endonym
An EXONYM or XENONYM is an external name for a geographical place , or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect . It is a common name used only outside the place, group, or linguistic community in question, usually for historical reasons. An ENDONYM or AUTONYM is an internal name for a geographical place , or a group of people, or a language or dialect . It is a common name used only inside the place, group, or linguistic community in question; it is their name for themselves, their homeland, or their language. For instance, " Germany
Germany
" is the English language
English language
exonym, "Allemagne" is the French language
French language
exonym, and "Deutschland" is the endonym for the same country in Europe. Marcel Aurousseau , an Australian geographer , first used the term exonym in his work The Rendering of Geographical Names (1957)
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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Hebrew Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic
Arabic
4 c
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
, may be used
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Uzbekistan
Coordinates : 41°N 69°E / 41°N 69°E / 41; 69 Republic
Republic
of Uzbekistan Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi (Uzbek ) Республика Узбекистан (Russian ) Flag State emblem ANTHEM: Oʻzbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi State Anthem of the Republic
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