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Permian
The Permian
Permian
is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea
Pangaea
and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa
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Perm Krai
Perm
Perm
Krai (Russian: Пе́рмский край, tr. Permsky kray, IPA: [ˈpʲɛrmskʲɪj ˈkraj]) is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a krai) that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm
Perm
Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug. The city of Perm
Perm
is the administrative center. Population: 2,635,276 (2010 Census).[7] Komi-Permyak Okrug
Komi-Permyak Okrug
retained its autonomous status within Perm
Perm
Krai during the transitional period of 2006–2008. It also retained a budget separate from that of the krai, keeping all federal transfers. Starting in 2009, Komi-Permyak Okrug's budget became subject to the budgeting law of Perm
Perm
Krai
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Parts Per Million
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction. Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement. Commonly used are ppm (parts-per-million, 10−6), ppb (parts-per-billion, 10−9), ppt (parts-per-trillion, 10−12) and ppq (parts-per-quadrillion, 10−15). This notation is not part of the SI system and its meaning is ambiguous.Contents1 Overview1.1 In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy2 Parts-per expressions 3 Criticism3.1 Long and short scales 3.2 Thousand vs. trillion 3.3 Mass fraction vs. mole fraction vs
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Édouard De Verneuil
Philippe Édouard Poulletier de Verneuil (13 February 1805 – 29 May 1873) was a French paleontologist.[1]Contents1 Life 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksLife[edit] He was born in Paris and educated in law, but being of independent means he was free to follow his own inclinations, and having attended lectures on geology by Jean-Baptiste Elie de Beaumont
Jean-Baptiste Elie de Beaumont
he was so attracted to the subject that he devoted himself assiduously to the study of science. He spent several years in travel through various parts of Europe, specially examining the geology of the Crimea, on which he published an essay (Mem. Soc. Geol. France, 1837)
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Geological Society Of London
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society,[2] is a learned society based in the United Kingdom. It is the oldest national geological society in the world and the largest in Europe with more than 12,000 Fellows. Fellows are entitled to the postnominal FGS (Fellow of the Geological Society), over 2,000 of whom are Chartered Geologists (CGeol). The Society is a Registered Charity, No. 210161
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Desert
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which consequently break in pieces. Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods
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Mya (unit)
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Carbon Dioxide
Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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Lepidosauria
The Lepidosauria
Lepidosauria
(from Greek meaning scaled lizards) are reptiles with overlapping scales. This subclass includes Squamata
Squamata
and Rhynchocephalia. It is a monophyletic group and therefore contains all descendents of a common ancestor.[2] Squamata
Squamata
includes snakes, lizards, and amphisbaenia.[3] Rhynchocephalia
Rhynchocephalia
was a widespread and diverse group 220-100 million years ago;[4] however, it is now represented only by the genus Sphenodon, which contains two species of tuatara, native to New Zealand.[5][6] Lepidosauria
Lepidosauria
is the sister taxon to Archosauria, which includes Aves
Aves
and Crocodilia
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Amniote
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb"[1]) are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals. Amniotes lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother, and are distinguished from the anamniotes (fishes and amphibians), which typically lay their eggs in water. Older sources, particularly prior to the 20th century, may refer to amniotes as "higher vertebrates" and anamniotes as "lower vertebrates", based on the discredited idea of the great chain of being. Amniotes are tetrapods (descendants of four-limbed and backboned animals) that are characterised by having an egg equipped with an amnion, an adaptation to lay eggs on land rather than in water as the anamniotes (including frogs) typically do
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Perm
Perm
Perm
(Russian: Пермь, IPA: [pʲɛrmʲ];[13]) is a city and the administrative center of Perm
Perm
Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the
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System (stratigraphy)
A system in stratigraphy is a unit of rock layers that were laid down together within the same corresponding geological period. The associated period is a chronological time unit, a part of the geological time scale, while the system is a unit of chronostratigraphy. Systems are unrelated to lithostratigraphy, which subdivides rock layers on their lithology. Systems are subdivisions of erathems and are themselves divided into series and stages.Contents1 Systems in the geological timescale 2 Multidiscipline comparison 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksSystems in the geological timescale[edit] The systems of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
were defined during the 19th century, beginning with the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(by Belgian geologist Jean d'Omalius d'Halloy in the Paris Basin) and the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(by British geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips) in 1822)
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Period (geology)
A geologic period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth's history. Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages. The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system.Contents1 Structure 2 Correlation issues 3 See also 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The twelve currently recognised periods of the present eon – the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic

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Turtle
Cryptodira Pleurodira †Meiolaniidae and see textDiversity14 extant families with 356 speciesblue: sea turtles, black: land turtlesThis article's lead section may not adequately summarize its contents. To comply with's lead section guidelines, please consider modifying the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article. (discuss). (January 2018)Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines
Testudines
(or Chelonii[3]) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.[4] "Turtle" may refer to the order as a whole (American English) or to fresh-water and sea-dwelling testudines (British English).[5] The order Testudines
Testudines
includes both extant (living) and extinct species
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