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Permalloy
Permalloy
Permalloy
is a nickel–iron magnetic alloy, with about 80% nickel and 20% iron content. Invented in 1914 by physicist Gustav Elmen at Bell Telephone Laboratories,[1] it is notable for its very high magnetic permeability, which makes it useful as a magnetic core material in electrical and electronic equipment, and also in magnetic shielding to block magnetic fields. Commercial permalloy alloys typically have relative permeability of around 100,000, compared to several thousand for ordinary steel.[2] In addition to high permeability, its other magnetic properties are low coercivity, near zero magnetostriction, and significant anisotropic magnetoresistance. The low magnetostriction is critical for industrial applications, allowing it to be used in thin films where variable stresses would otherwise cause a ruinously large variation in magnetic properties
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Inductance
Inductance
Inductance
is a property of an electrical conductor which opposes a change in current.[1] It does that by storing and releasing energy from a magnetic field surrounding the conductor when current flows, according to Faraday's law of induction. When current rises, energy (as magnetic flux) is stored in the field, reducing the current and causing a drop in potential (i.e., a voltage) across the conductor; when current falls, energy is released from the field supplying current and causing a rise in potential across the conductor
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Resistivity
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the flow of electric current. Resistivity is commonly represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho). The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm-metre (Ω⋅m).[1][2][3] As an example, if a 1 m × 1 m × 1 m solid cube of material has sheet contacts on two opposite faces, and the resistance between these contacts is 1 Ω, then the resistivity of the material is 1 Ω⋅m. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity, and measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. It is commonly represented by the Greek letter σ (sigma), but κ (kappa) (especially in electrical engineering) or γ (gamma) are also occasionally used
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Submarine Telegraph Cable
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea. The first submarine communications cables laid beginning in the 1850s carried telegraphy traffic, establishing the first instant telecommunications links between continents, such as the first transatlantic telegraph cable which became operational on 16 August 1858. Subsequent generations of cables carried telephone traffic, then data communications traffic
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Telegraphy
Telegraphy
Telegraphy
(from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy
Telegraphy
requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy. The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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Silicon Steel
Electrical steel
Electrical steel
(lamination steel, silicon electrical steel, silicon steel, relay steel, transformer steel) is a special steel tailored to produce specific magnetic properties: small hysteresis area resulting in low power loss per cycle, low core loss, and high permeability. Electrical steel
Electrical steel
is usually manufactured in cold-rolled strips less than 2 mm thick. These strips are cut to shape to make laminations which are stacked together to form the laminated cores of transformers, and the stator and rotor of electric motors
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Heat Treatment
Heat treating
Heat treating
(or heat treatment) is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering, normalizing and quenching
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Molybdenum
Molybdenum
Molybdenum
is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores.[6] Molybdenum
Molybdenum
minerals have been known throughout history, but the element was discovered (in the sense of differentiating it as a new entity from the mineral salts of other metals) in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm. Molybdenum
Molybdenum
does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth; it is found only in various oxidation states in minerals. The free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element
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Ductility
Ductility
Ductility
is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test. According to Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design--10th Ed. [1] significant denotes about 5.0 percent elongation (Section 5.3, p. 233). See also Eq. 2-12, p. 50 for definitions of percent elongation and percent area reduction. Ductility
Ductility
is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire. From examination of data in Tables A20, A21, A22, A23, and A24 in Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design--10th Edition [1] for both ductile and brittle materials, it is possible to postulate a broader quantifiable definition of ductility that does not rely on percent elongation alone
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Face Centered Cubic
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. This is one of the most common and simplest shapes found in crystals and minerals. There are three main varieties of these crystals:Primitive cubic (abbreviated cP[1] and alternatively called simple cubic) Body-centered cubic (abbreviated cI[1] or bcc), Face-centered cubic (abbreviated cF[1] or fcc, and alternatively called cubic close-packed or ccp)Each is subdivided into other variants listed below
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Bell Labs
Nokia
Nokia
Bell Labs
Bell Labs
(formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone
Telephone
Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in addition to other laboratories around the rest of the United States
United States
and in other countries. The historic laboratory originated in the late 19th century as the Volta Laboratory and Bureau
Volta Laboratory and Bureau
created by Alexander Graham Bell
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Bell Laboratories
Nokia
Nokia
Bell Labs
Bell Labs
(formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone
Telephone
Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in addition to other laboratories around the rest of the United States
United States
and in other countries. The historic laboratory originated in the late 19th century as the Volta Laboratory and Bureau
Volta Laboratory and Bureau
created by Alexander Graham Bell
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Anisotropic
Anisotropy
Anisotropy
/ˌænɪˈsɒtrəpi/, /ˌænaɪˈsɒtrəpi/ is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy. It can be defined as a difference, when measured along different axes, in a material's physical or mechanical properties (absorbance, refractive index, conductivity, tensile strength, etc.) An example of anisotropy is light coming through a polarizer
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Magnetostriction
Magnetostriction
Magnetostriction
(cf. electrostriction) is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization. The variation of materials' magnetization due to the applied magnetic field changes the magnetostrictive strain until reaching its saturation value, λ. The effect was first identified in 1842 by James Joule when observing a sample of iron.[1] This effect causes energy loss due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores
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Supermalloy
Supermalloy is an alloy composed of nickel (75%), iron (20%), and molybdenum (5%). It is a magnetically soft material. The resistivity of the alloy is 0.6 Ω·mm2/m (or 6.0 x 10−7Ω·m).[1] It has an extremely high magnetic permeability (approximately 7005800000000000000♠800000 N/A2) and a low coercivity. Supermalloy is used in manufacturing components for radio engineering, telephony, and telemechanics instruments. References[edit]^ " Supermalloy Nickel
Nickel
& Nickel
Nickel
Alloys Non-ferrous Metals Metals Material Categories Chemical, mechanical, physical and environmental properties of materials Matbase: the independent online material selection resource". www.matbase.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2017-12-09. This material-related article is a stub
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