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Performance-enhancing Drug
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED),[1] are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans. A well-known example involves doping in sport, where banned physical performance–enhancing drugs are used by athletes and bodybuilders. Athletic performance-enhancing substances are sometimes referred to as ergogenic aids.[2][3] Cognitive performance-enhancing drugs, commonly called nootropics,[4] are sometimes used by students to improve academic performance. Performance-enhancing substances are also used by military personnel to enhance combat performance.[5] The use of performance-enhancing drugs spans the categories of legitimate use and substance abuse.Contents1 Definition 2 Types 3 Usage in sport 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDefinition[edit] The classifications of substances as performance-enhancing substances are not entirely clear-cut and objective
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Cannabis
Cannabis
Cannabis
(/ˈkænəbɪs/) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa, Cannabis
Cannabis
indica, and Cannabis
Cannabis
ruderalis; C. ruderalis may be included within C. sativa; or all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, C. sativa.[2][3][4][1] The genus is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.[5] Cannabis
Cannabis
has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils, for medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber
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Blood Pressure
Blood
Blood
pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels. Used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the pressure in large arteries of the systemic circulation. Blood
Blood
pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure (maximum during one heart beat) over diastolic pressure (minimum in between two heart beats) and is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg), above the surrounding atmospheric pressure (considered to be zero for convenience). Blood
Blood
pressure is one of the vital signs, along with respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and body temperature
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Β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate
β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid[note 1] (HMB), also known as β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is a naturally produced substance in humans that is used as a dietary supplement and as an ingredient in certain medical foods that are intended to promote wound healing and provide nutritional support for people with muscle wasting due to cancer or HIV/AIDS.[sources 1] In healthy adults, supplementation with HMB has been shown to increase exercise-induced gains in muscle size, muscle strength, and lean body mass, reduce skeletal muscle damage from exercise, improve aerobic exercise performance, and expedite recovery from exercise.[sources 2] Medical reviews and meta-analyses indicate that HMB supplementation also helps to preserve or increase lean body mass and muscle strength in individuals experiencing age-related muscle loss.[11][12][13] HMB produces these effects in part by stimulating the production of proteins and inhibiting the breakdown of proteins in muscle tissue.[11][14][15] No adver
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Adaptogen
Adaptogens or adaptogenic substances[1] are used in herbal medicine for the claimed stabilization of physiological processes and promotion of homeostasis.[2] The European Medicines Agency
European Medicines Agency
stated in a 2008 reflection paper that the concept requires additional clinical and preclinical research, and is therefore not accepted into current terminology.[3] The concept of adaptogens was originally created in 1947 to describe a substance that may increase resistance to stress.[3] Adaptogenesis was later applied in the former
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European Medicines Agency
Council of the EU PresidencyConfigurationsGeneral Foreign Justice and Home EconomicEuroLegislative procedure Voting SecretariatSecretary-GeneralUwe CorsepiusDirectorates-general COREPERJudiciaryCourt of JusticeMembers RulingsGeneral CourtCentral BankPresident DraghiESCB Euro EMU EurozoneCourt of AuditorsBudget OLAFOther bodiesAgencies Investment Bank CoR EESC Ombudsman National parliamentsPolicies and issuesForeign relationsHigh RepresentativeFederica MogheriniExt
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Nootropic
Nootropics (English pronunciation: /noʊ.əˈtrɒpɪks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks), also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2] The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5] The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E
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Working Memory
Working memory
Working memory
is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.[1] Working memory
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Cognitive Control
Executive functions
Executive functions
(collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions
Executive functions
include basic cognitive processes such as attentional control, cognitive inhibition, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility
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Inhibitory Control
Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process that permits an individual to inhibit their impulses and natural, habitual, or dominant behavioral responses to stimuli (a.k.a. prepotent responses) in order to select a more appropriate behavior that is consistent with completing their goals.[1][2] For example, successfully suppressing the natural behavioral response to eat cake when one is craving it while dieting requires the use of inhibitory control.[2] Inhibitory control
Inhibitory control
is an executive function and self-control is an important aspect of inhibitory control.[1][2][3][4
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Attentional Control
Attentional control
Attentional control
refers to an individual's capacity to choose what they pay attention to and what they ignore.[1] It is also known as endogenous attention or executive attention
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Attention Span
Attention
Attention
span is the amount of concentrated time a person can spend on a task without becoming distracted. Most educators and psychologists agree that the ability to focus and sustain attention on a task is crucial for the achievement of one's goals.Contents1 Length of the span 2 Measurement 3 Research 4 Modern society 5 See also 6 ReferencesLength of the span[edit] Estimates for the length of human attention span are highly variable and depend on the precise definition of attention being used.Transient attention is a short-term response to a stimulus that temporarily attracts/distracts attention. Researchers disagree on the exact amount of human transient attention span. Selective sustained attention, also known as focused attention, is the level of attention that produces the consistent results on a task over time
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Painkiller
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic
Analgesic
drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems
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Muscle Cell
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell)[1] is the type of cell found in muscle tissue. Myocytes are long, tubular cells that develop from myoblasts to form muscles in a process known as myogenesis.[2] There are various specialized forms of myocytes: cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells, with various properties
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Nutritional Supplement
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.[2] A supplement can provide nutrients either extracted from food sources or synthetic, individually or in combination, in order to increase the quantity of their consumption. The class of nutrient compounds includes vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids and amino acids. Dietary supplements can also contain substances that have not been confirmed as being essential to life, but are marketed as having a beneficial biological effect, such as plant pigments or polyphenols. Animals can also be a source of supplement ingredients, as for example collagen from chickens or fish. These are also sold individually and in combination, and may be combined with nutrient ingredients. In the United States
United States
and Canada, dietary supplements are considered a subset of foods, and are regulated accordingly
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Over-the-counter Drug
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional,[1] as opposed to prescription drugs, which may only be sold to consumers possessing a valid prescription. In many countries, OTC drugs are selected by a regulatory agency to ensure that they are ingredients that are safe and effective when used without a physician's care. OTC drugs are usually regulated by active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), not final products. By regulating APIs instead of specific drug formulations, governments allow manufacturers freedom to formulate ingredients, or combinations of ingredients, into proprietary mixtures.[2] The term over-the-counter may be somewhat counterintuitive, since, in many countries, these drugs are often placed on shelves in self-service areas of stores, like any other packaged products.[1] In contrast, prescription drugs are almost always passed over a counter from the pharmacist to the customer
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