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Peninsula Campaign
The Peninsula Campaign
Peninsula Campaign
(also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War
American Civil War
was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia
Virginia
from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement against the Confederate States Army
Confederate States Army
in Northern Virginia, intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of the more aggressive General Robert E. Lee
Robert E

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CSS Virginia
CSS Virginia
Virginia
was the first steam-powered ironclad warship built by the Confederate States Navy
Confederate States Navy
during the first year of the American Civil War; she was constructed as a casemate ironclad using the raised and cut down original lower hull and engines of the scuttled steam frigate USS Merrimack
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Washington's Birthday
Washington's Birthday is a United States federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday of February in honor of George Washington, the first President of the United States, who was born on February 22, 1732.[1] Since the Uniform Federal Holidays Act of 1971, its observance can occur between February 15 and February 21 inclusive.[2] Colloquially, the day is also now widely known as Presidents' Day and is often an occasion to honor the incumbent president and all persons who have served as president, not just George Washington.[3][4] The day is a state holiday in most states, with official names including Washington's Birthday, Presidents' Day, President's Day, and Washington's and Lincoln's Birthday.[3] Depending upon the specific law, the state holiday might officially celebrate Washington alone, Washington and Abraham Lincoln (whose birthday is February 12), or some other combination of U.S
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Virginia
Virginia
Virginia
(/vərˈdʒɪniə/ ( listen); officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern[6] and Mid-Atlantic[7] regions of the United States
United States
located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia
Virginia
is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America,[8] and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision
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Major General (United States)
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks above brigadier general and below lieutenant general.[1][Note 1] A major general typically commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the two-star rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy
United States Navy
and United States Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
and is the highest permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed services. Higher ranks are technically temporary ranks linked to specific positions, although virtually all officers who have been promoted to those ranks are approved to retire at their highest earned rank.Contents1 Statutory limits 2 Promotion, appointment, and tour length 3 Retirement 4 History4.1 U.S. Army 4.2 Confederate States Army 4.3 U.S. Marine Corps 4.4 U.S
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Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
Virginia
– locally referred to as NOVA – comprises several counties and independent cities in the Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
in the United States. It is a widespread region radiating westward from Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
With 2.8 million residents (about a third of the Commonwealth), it is the most populous region of Virginia
Virginia
and the Washington metropolitan area.[1][2][3] Communities in the region form the Virginia
Virginia
portion of the Washington metropolitan area and the larger Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area
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Richmond, Virginia
Richmond (/ˈrɪtʃmənd/ RICH-mənd) is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
in the United States. It is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA) and the Greater Richmond Region. It was incorporated in 1742, and has been an independent city since 1871. As of the 2010 census, the population was 204,214;[6] in 2016, the population was estimated to be 223,170,[6] the fourth-most populous city in Virginia
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Warwick Line
The Warwick Line (also known as the Warwick–Yorktown line) was a defensive works across the Virginia Peninsula
Virginia Peninsula
maintained along the Warwick River by Confederate General John B. Magruder
John B. Magruder
against much larger Union forces under General George B. McClellan
George B

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Rappahannock River
The Rappahannock River
Rappahannock River
is a river in eastern Virginia, in the United States,[2] approximately 195 miles (314 km) in length.[3] It traverses the entire northern part of the state, from the Blue Ridge Mountains in the west where it rises, across the Piedmont to the Fall Line, and onward through the coastal plain to flow into the Chesapeake Bay, south of the Potomac River. An important river in American history, the Rappahannock was long an area of occupation by indigenous peoples. During the colonial era, early settlements in the Virginia
Virginia
Colony were formed along the river. It was at the center of a major theater of battle in the American Civil War, where tens of thousands of troops fought against each other. Some 10,000 African-American slaves escaped across the river to Union lines and freedom, after the first Battle of Fredericksburg
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Urbanna, Virginia
Urbanna is a town in Middlesex County, Virginia, United States. Urbanna means “City of Anne” and was named in honor of England’s Queen Anne.[3] The population was 476 at the 2010 census.Contents1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 Events 4 Notable residents, past and present 5 Climate 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit] Urbanna is located at 37°38′16″N 76°34′23″W / 37.63778°N 76.57306°W / 37.63778; -76.57306 (37.637796, -76.573149).[4] According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.5 square miles (1.3 km²), of which, 0.4 square miles (1.1 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it (17.65%) is water. Demographics[edit]Historical populationCensus Pop.%±1880 163—1910 475—1920 387−18.5%1930 43211.6%1940 48211.6%1950 5054.8%1960 5121.4%1970 475−7.2%1980 5189.1%1990 5292.1%2000 5432.6%2010 476−12.3%Est
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Manassas, Virginia
Manassas (formerly Manassas Junction)[4] is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 37,821.[5] The city borders Prince William County, the independent city of Manassas Park, and Fairfax County. The Bureau of Economic Analysis includes both Manassas and Manassas Park with Prince William County
County
for statistical purposes. Manassas also serves as the seat of Prince William County. It surrounds the 38-acre (150,000 m2) county courthouse, but that county property is not part of the city
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Centreville, Virginia
Centreville is a census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States and a suburb of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The population was 71,135 at the 2010 census.[3] Centreville is approximately 20 miles (32 km) west of Washington, DC.Contents1 History1.1 Colonial period 1.2 Federal period 1.3 Civil War 1.4 Modern2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 Transportation 5 Notable people 6 Education6.1 Primary and secondary schools 6.2 Public libraries7 Nearby towns, communities, etc. 8 External links 9 NotesHistory[edit] Colonial period[edit] Beginning in the 1760s, the area was known as Newgate due to the popularity of the conveniently-located Newgate tavern
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Council Of War
A council of war is a term in military science that describes a meeting held to decide on a course of action, usually in the midst of a battle. Under normal circumstances, decisions are made by a commanding officer, optionally communicated and coordinated by staff officers, and then implemented by subordinate officers. Councils of war are typically held when matters of great importance must be decided, consensus must be reached with subordinates, or when the commanding officer is unsure of his position. The classic council of war includes a discussion and then a vote, often taken without the senior commander present to influence or intimidate the subordinates. The tradition in such meetings is that the officers vote in reverse sequence of their seniority, with the junior officers voting first. A variation on the traditional council of war is one in which the subordinates vote, but the results are considered merely advisory to the overall commander, who then makes a final decision
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Quaker Gun
A Quaker gun
Quaker gun
is a deception tactic that was commonly used in warfare during the 18th and 19th centuries. Although resembling an actual cannon, the Quaker gun
Quaker gun
was simply a wooden log, usually painted black, used to deceive an enemy. Misleading the enemy as to the strength of an emplacement was an effective delaying tactic
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Ironclad Warship
An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.[1] The ironclad was developed as a result of the vulnerability of wooden warships to explosive or incendiary shells. The first ironclad battleship, Gloire, was launched by the French Navy in November 1859.[2] The British Admiralty
Admiralty
had been considering armored warships since 1856 and prepared a draft design for an armored corvette in 1857; in early 1859 the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
started building two iron-hulled armored frigates, and by 1861 had made the decision to move to an all-armored battle fleet. After the first clashes of ironclads (both with wooden ships and with one another) took place in 1862 during the American Civil War, it became clear that the ironclad had replaced the unarmored ship of the line as the most powerful warship afloat
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