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Pebble Tools
The Oldowan
Oldowan
(or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry in prehistory (it is pre-dated by Lomekwian tools at a single site dated to 3.3 mya (million years ago).[1] Oldowan
Oldowan
tools were used during the Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
period, 2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 million years ago, by ancient hominids across much of Africa, South Asia, the Middle East
Middle East
and Europe. This technological industry was followed by the more sophisticated Acheulean
Acheulean
industry. The term Oldowan
Oldowan
is taken from the site of Olduvai Gorge
Olduvai Gorge
in Tanzania, where the first Oldowan
Oldowan
lithics were discovered by the archaeologist Louis Leakey
Louis Leakey
in the 1930s
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Afro-Eurasia
Coordinates: 21°30′00″N 86°30′00″E / 21.5000°N 86.5000°E / 21.5000; 86.5000Afro-EurasiaArea 84,980,532 km2 (32,811,167 sq mi)Population 6,151,810,000 (2013)Demonym Afro-Eurasian,EurafrasianCountries 147Dependencies 17Afro-Eurasia,[1] Afroeurasia,[2] or Eurafrasia,[3] nicknamed the World Island, is a landmass which can be subdivided into Africa
Africa
and Eurasia (which can be further subdivided into Asia
Asia
and Europe). These three continents form the largest contiguous landmass on Earth
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Trialetian
Trialetian
Trialetian
is the name for an Upper Paleolithic- Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
stone tool industry from the area south of the Caucasus Mountains[1] and to the northern Zagros Mountains. It is tentatively dated to the period between 16,000 / 13,000 BP and 8,000 BP.[2] The name of the archaeological culture derives from sites in the district of Trialeti in south Georgian Khrami
Khrami
river basin. These sites include Barmaksyzkaya and Edzani-Zurtaketi,.[3] In Edzani, an Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
site, a significant percentage of the artifacts are made of obsidian.[4] The Caucasian-Anatolian area of Trialetian
Trialetian
culture was adjacent to the Iraqi-Iranian Zarzian culture
Zarzian culture
to the east and south as well as the Levantine Natufian to the southwest.[5] Alan H
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Mal'ta–Buret' Culture
Coordinates: 52°54′N 103°30′E / 52.9°N 103.5°E / 52.9; 103.5 The Mal'ta–Buret' culture
Mal'ta–Buret' culture
is an archaeological culture of the Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(c. 24,000 to 15,000 BP) on the upper Angara River
Angara River
in the area west of Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
in the Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation. The type sites are named for the villages of Mal'ta (Мальта), Usolsky District and Buret' (Буреть), Bokhansky District (both in Irkutsk Oblast). A boy whose remains were found near Mal'ta is usually known by the abbreviation MA-1 (or MA1). Discovered in the 1920s, the remains have been date to 24,000 BP
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Solutrean
The Solutrean
The Solutrean
industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP. Solutrean
Solutrean
sites have been found in modern-day France and Spain.Contents1 Details 2 Solutrean hypothesis
Solutrean hypothesis
in North American archaeology 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDetails[edit] The term Solutrean
Solutrean
comes from the type-site of "Cros du Charnier", dating to around 21,000 years ago and located at Solutré, in east-central France near Mâcon. The Rock of Solutré
Rock of Solutré
site was discovered in 1866 by the French geologist and paleontologist Henry Testot-Ferry
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Halfan Culture
The Halfan industry is one of the Late Epipalaeolithic
Epipalaeolithic
industries of the Nile Valley
Nile Valley
that began to appear by 19,000-17,000 BP.[1] It is one of the earliest known backed-bladelet industries in Northern Africa, largely dating between 19,000 and 14,000 BP in Nubia
Nubia
and Egypt.[2] The Halfan was formerly seen as the parent culture of the Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
industry in the Maghreb. Since the earliest Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
is dated to ≥ 23,950 BP, it is more likely that the Halfan culture is descended from Ibero-maurusian culture. The Halfan culture is believed to have descended from the Khormusan Culture [3] [4] which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival. The Halfan people survived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing
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Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
is a Late Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
Siberian complex of archaeological sites located on the left bank of the Yenisei River near the city of Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
has cultural and genetic links to the people from Mal'ta-Buret'. The complex was first excavated in 1884 by I. T
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Epigravettian
Georges Laplace (fr), 1958 (broader-than-modern meaning)[2] Broglio, Laplace et al., 1963 (modern meaning, as “Tardigravettiano”)[3]The Epigravettian
Epigravettian
(Greek: epi "above, on top of", and Gravettian) was one of the last archaeological industries of the European Upper Paleolithic. It arose after the Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
around ~21,000 cal. BP. It is related to the Gravettian, of which it is considered a continuation by some scholars (e.g. G. Laplace). In this sense, the Epigravettian
Epigravettian
is simply the Gravettian
Gravettian
after ~21,000 BP, when the Solutrean
Solutrean
had replaced the Gravettian
Gravettian
in most of France and Spain. Its known range extends from southeast France to the western shores of the Volga River, Russia, with a large number of sites in Italy
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Zarzian Culture
Zarzian culture
Zarzian culture
is an archaeological culture of late Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
in Southwest Asia. The period of the culture is estimated to have existed about 18,000–8,000 BCE. It was preceded by the Baradostian culture in the same region and was related to the Imereti culture[citation needed] of the Caucasus. The culture was named and recognised of the cave of Zarzi in Iraqi Kurdistan. Here were found plenty of microliths (up to 20% finds). Their forms are short and asymmetric trapezoids, and triangles with hollows. Andy Burns states "The Zarzian of the Zagros region of Iran is contemporary with the Natufian
Natufian
but different from it. The only dates for the entire Zarzian come from Palegawra Cave, and date to 17,300-17,000BP, but it is clear that it is broadly contemporary with the Levantine Kebaran, with which it shares features
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Iberomaurusian
The Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.[1] Its name, meaning "of Iberia and Mauritania", is based on Pallary (1909)'s belief[2] that it extended over the strait of Gibraltar into Spain and Portugal, a theory now generally discounted (Garrod 1938).[3] Pallary (1909) originally described the industry based on material found at the site of Abri Mouillah.[2] Because the name of the
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Kebaran
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dogEpipaleolithic MesolithicMicroliths, Bow, CanoeNatufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicNeolithic Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicPottery↓ Chalcolithicv t eThe Kebaran or Kebarian culture was an archaeological culture in the eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
area (c. 18,000 to 12,500 BP), named after its type site, Kebara Cave
Kebara Cave
south of Haifa
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Magdalenian
The Magdalenian
Magdalenian
(also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic
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Hamburg Culture
The Hamburg
Hamburg
culture or Hamburgian (15,500-13,100 BP) was a Late Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
culture of reindeer hunters in northwestern Europe during the last part of the Weichsel Glaciation beginning during the Bölling interstadial.[1] Sites are found close to the ice caps of the time.[2] The Hamburg
Hamburg
Culture has been identified at many places, for example, the settlement at Meiendorf and Ahrensburg[3] north of Hamburg, Germany. It is characterized by shouldered points and zinken tools, which were used as chisels when working with antler. In later periods tanged Havelte-type points appear, sometimes described as most of all a northwestern phenomenon
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Gravettian
The Gravettian
Gravettian
was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
that succeeded the Aurignacian
Aurignacian
c. 33,000 BP.[1][4] It is archaeologically the last European culture many consider unified,[5] and had mostly disappeared by c
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Eburran Industry
Eburran industry is the name of the East African tool assemblage from 13,000 BCE and thereafter around Lake Nakuru
Lake Nakuru
in the Ol Doinyo Eburru volcano complex (name giving) in the Rift Valley in Kenya.[1] The culture was a time known as "Kenyan Capsian" because the findings resemble those of the North African Capsian
Capsian
trans-Saharan culture. It was also formerly called "Kenyan Aurignacian". The assemblages, as recovered from Gamble's Cave and Nderit Drift, comprise large backed blades, crescentric microliths, burins, and end-scrapers
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Qadan Culture
The Qadan culture
Qadan culture
(13,000-9,000 BC) was an ancient culture that, archaeological evidence suggests, originated in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
(present day south Egypt) approximately 15,000 years ago [1][2]. This way of life is estimated to have persisted for approximately 4,000 years, and was characterized by hunting, as well as a unique approach to food gathering that incorporated the preparation and consumption of wild grasses and grains.[1][2] Systematic efforts were made by the Qadan people to water, care for, and harvest local plant life, but grains were not planted in ordered rows
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