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Peasant
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.[1][2] In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave, serf, and free tenant. Peasants either hold title to land in fee simple, or hold land by any of several forms of land tenure, among them socage, quit-rent, leasehold, and copyhold.[3] The word "peasant" is—and long has been—often used pejoratively to refer to poor or landless farmers and agricultural workers, especially in the poorer countries of the world in which the agricultural labor force makes up a large percentage of the population
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Maimonides
30 March[1] or 6 April[2] 1135 Possibly born 28 March[3] or 4 April[4] 1138 Córdoba, Almoravid Empire
Almoravid Empire
(present-day Spain)Died 12 December 1204 (aged 69) Fostat, Ayyubid Sultanate
Ayyubid Sultanate
(present-day Eg
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Agriculture In China
Agriculture
Agriculture
is a vital industry in China, employing over 300 million farmers.[1] China
China
ranks first in worldwide farm output, primarily producing rice, wheat, potatoes, toma
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Lord Of The Manor
In British or Irish history, the lordship of a manor is a lordship emanating from the feudal system of manorialism. In modern England and Wales, it is recognised as a form of property,[1] one of three elements of a manor that may exist separately or be combined, and may be held in moieties:the title (deriving from the Roman concept of dignitas); the manorial, comprising the manor and/or its land; and the seignory, rights granted to the titular holder of the manor.A title similar to such a lordship is known in French as Seigneur du Manoir, Welsh as Breyr, Gutsherr in German, Godsherre in Norwegian and Swedish, Ambachtsheer in Dutch and Signore or Vassallo in Italian
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Bishop
A bishop (English derivation[a][1][2][3] from the New Testament
New Testament
of the Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic
Old Catholic
and Independent Catholic churches
Independent Catholic churches
and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop
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Literacy
Literacy
Literacy
is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write .[1] The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture.[2] The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. '"the Century of Lights"'; and in German: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment")[2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".[3] The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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Factory
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, and fewer than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops".[1] Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production
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Low German
Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk German: Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch Dutch: NederduitsNative to Northern Germany Western Germany Eastern Netherlands Southern DenmarkEthnicity Dutch, Frisians
Frisians
and Germans; Historically Saxons ( Germanic peoples
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Smallholder
A smallholding is a small farm. In third world countries, smallholdings are usually farms supporting a single family with a mixture of cash crops and subsistence farming. As a country becomes more affluent and farming practices become more efficient, smallholdings may persist as a legacy of historical land ownership practices[dubious – discuss]. In more affluent societies, smallholdings may be valued primarily for the rural lifestyle that they provide for the owners, who often do not earn their livelihood from the farm. There are an estimated 500 million smallholder farms in the world, supporting almost 2 billion people.[1] Today some companies try to include smallholdings into their value chain, providing seed, feed or fertilizer to improve production
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Japanese People
Japanese people
Japanese people
(Japanese: 日本人, Hepburn: nihonjin) are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan[23][24][25][26] and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.[27] Worldwide, approximately 129 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 125 million are residents of Japan.[1] People of Japanese ancestry who live outside Japan
Japan
are referred to as nikkeijin (日系人), the Japanese diaspora
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Neologism
A neologism (/niːˈɒlədʒɪzəm/; from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.[1] Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event. In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than protologisms.[2]Contents1 Background 2 Sources 3 History and meaning 4 Literature 5 Popular culture 6 Translations 7 Other uses 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksBackground[edit] Neologisms are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes. Portmanteaux
Portmanteaux
are combined words that are sometimes used commonly. "Brunch" is an example of a portmanteau word (breakfast + lunch)
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Frederick W. Mote
Frederick Wade "Fritz" Mote (June 2, 1922 – February 10, 2005), was an American Sinologist and a professor of History at Princeton University for nearly 50 years. His research and teaching interests focused on China during the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
and the Yuan Dynasty. In collaboration with Denis C. Twitchett and John K. Fairbank he helped create The Cambridge History of China, a monumental (though still incomplete) history of China.Contents1 Life and career 2 Selected works 3 References 4 NotesLife and career[edit] Mote was born in Plainview, Nebraska, one of ten children. In 1943 (during World War II) he enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Force
U.S. Army Air Force
but was unable to go to flight school for medical reasons
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Ming Dynasty
The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(/mɪŋ/)[2] was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the Great Ming Empire
Empire
– for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history",[3] was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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